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To Open The Sky

The Front Pages of Christopher P. Winter

Accidents Involving Nuclear Energy

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1980 – 1989

Incident 347

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1980:

An individual in France places radioactive graphite fuel plugs under the driver's seat of someone else's car. The victim sustains a 25- to 30-rad dose to his spinal bone marrow and 400-500 rads to his testes. The perpetrator is tried and convicted of poisoning by radiation, fined $1,000, and serves 9 months in prison.

Note: This date is uncertain, but is known to be prior to 1980.

Incident 348

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1980: During a power failure in Shanghai China, defective interlocks allow a worker to enter the irradiation chamber of a cobalt-60 source. The individual receives a 500-rad whole-body dose and also localized radiation injuries.

Incident 349

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1980: Seven die from exposure to a Yttrium-90 nuclear medicine source in Houston, Texas.

Incident 350

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
Jan 1980: An earthquake measuring 5.5 on the Richter scale causes a tritium leak at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Incident 351

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
12 Feb 1980: British authorities close Bradwell nuclear power plant after electronic scans disclose cracks in welds.

Incident 352

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
13 Mar 1980: Technical fault causes incident at Saint Laurent des Eaux nuclear power plant. (France)

Incident 353

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
Apr 1980: Fire destroys a transformer feeding electricity to La Hague reprocessing plant in France. The entire facility goes dark, but the critical loss is the pumps which must run constantly to cool the high-level wastes in storage tanks on-site. The liquid in the tanks begins to boil in three hours. All areas of the plant are contaminated. It takes several months to repair the electrical distribution system.

Incident 354

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
11 May 1980: Radioactive cooling water floods part of the Arkansas nuclear power plant, causing a shutdown of the reactor (US).

Incident 355

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
17 May 1980: An undescribed accident shuts down the research reprocessing plant at Karlsruhe for one year, amid fears of environmental contamination. (Germany)

Incident 356

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
4 Jul 1980: During preparations to vent radioative krypton gas from the ruined Unit 2 at Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, 45 tonnes of radioactive water are spilled. (US)

Incident 357

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
18 Jul 1980: According to recently discovered documents, the AEC has dumped 12,000 barrels of radioactive waste at 10 previously undisclosed sites in the Pacific. To this date, the only known U.S dump site is south of the Farallon Islands off San Francisco, California. There, one-quarter of the 47,000 barrels have burst.

Incident 358

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
20 Jul 1980: The USS Gurnard (SSN-662) spills 30 gallons of radioactive water in San Diego Bay. A Navy spokesman says a crewman of the Gurnard accidentally opened a valve, allowing the water to escape. The spokesman says a water sample taken in the area afterward shows normal levels of radioactivity.

Incident 359

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
Aug 1980: Both units of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant are shut down when a leak develops in Unit #1. (France)

Incident 360

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
21 Aug 1980:

Soviet Echo class nuclear-powered submarine K-66 has a reactor problem with radiation leakage 85 miles east of Okinawa. At least nine crew members are believed to have died from a fire in the propulsion compartment. A Soviet freighter arrives to evacuate the crew and a tugboat is readied to tow the stricken vessel to Vladivostok. Several warships stand by as escort.

The next day, the Japanese government advises ships to avoid the area, citing possible contamination. It refuses to allow the convoy to pass through Japanese territorial waters unless Moscow guarantees there are no nuclear weapons aboard and no danger of radiation leaks. The Soviets initially refuse, and their vessels enter Japanese waters. But on 24 August, to defuse the confrontation, Moscow issues the requested guarantee. Reportedly, Japanese forces later find evidence of radioactive contamination.

Incident 361

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
9 Sep 1980: A BBC television programme alleges that plutonium was lost from an experimental reactor at Dounreay, Scotland in 1973 and 1977. The director of the facility, although unsure of the whereabouts of the fuel rods, remains adamant that they have not been stolen.

Incident 362

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Weapons Accidents (Tiwari & Gray)
15 Sep 1980: A B-52H carrying nuclear-armed AGM-69 short range attack missiles catches fire on the ground during an alert exercise at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota. Fed by jet fuel from the number three main wing tank, the fire burns intensely for three hours and is only suppressed when the fuel flow stops. However, firefighters are aided by a strong favorable wind and prevent the flames from reaching the missiles.

Incident 363

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
19 Sep 1980: An Air Force repairman doing routine maintenance in a Titan II ICMB silo near Damascus, Arkansas drops a wrench socket which rolls off a work platform and falls to the bottom of the silo. The socket strikes the missile on the way down, causing a leak of the volatile and toxic fuel in a pressurized tank. The launch complex and the surrounding area are evacuated. Roughly eight hours later, fuel vapors in the silo ignite, blowing off the two 670-ton silo doors and hurling the missile's 9-MT warhead 600 feet. The explosion kills an Air Force specialist and injures 21 other USAF personnel. The silo is filled in with gravel and operations are transferred to a similar installation at Rock, Arkansas.

Incident 364

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
21 Sep 1980: Two canisters containing radioactive materials fall off a truck on New Jersey's Route 17, which traverses a number of suburban communities near New York City. The driver, en route from Pennsylvania to Toronto, Canada, does not notice the cargo loss until he reaches Albany, NY.

Incident 365

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
22 Sep 1980: Failure of a pump causes release of radioactivity at La Hague reprocessing plant in France.

Incident 366

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
3 Oct 1980: The Unit #2 reactor at Indian Point nuclear power plant, 30 miles up the Hudson from New York City, is shut down due to a series of mishaps that begins on 3 October. The accident results in 100,000 gallons of water spilling from the secondary coolant loop into the containment building. Indian Point officials do not report these events until several days after the shutdown.

Incident 367

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 Nov 1980: A U.S. nuclear missile is almost launched during a drill.

Incident 368

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
1 Dec 1980: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Dreadnought suffers serious machinery damage—reportedly cracks in her secondary cooling system—which necessitate a complete reactor shutdown. This extensive damage and problems with scheduling a refit lead to the aging submarine being retired.

Incident 369

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
3 Dec 1980: During a test, about 150 gallons of low-level radioactive water leak from a faulty valve on the USS Hawksbill (SSN-666). The ship is being overhauled at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. Five workers receive low-level contamination. A Navy spokesman says their doses are "less than that typically received by a chest X-ray."

Incident 370

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 Dec 1980: A DOE tractor-trailer rig carrying plutonium from the Hanford Works to New Mexico overturns on an icy road near Fort Collins, Colorado.

Incident 371

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1981: Two individuals in Buenos Aires, Argentina receive fingertip burns while trying to dislodge an iridium-192 source that has hung up in its delivery tube.

Incident 372

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
6 Jan 1981: Accident at La Hague reprocessing plant in France.

Incident 373

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
30 Jan 1981: Trojan Nuclear power plant shut down after a leak is discovered. (USA)

Incident 374

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
11 Feb 1981: An Auxiliary Unit Operator, working his first day on the job without proper training, inadvertently opens a valve and more than 110,000 U.S. gallons of radioactive coolant spray into the containment building of the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah 1 nuclear power plant in rural Tennessee. Eight workers are contaminated with radiation.

Incident 375

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
23 Feb 1981: Accidental explosion of a Pershing II missile in Germany.

Incident 376

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
5 Mar 1981: Startup of Kosmos-1249, probably a radarsat, with a nuclear reactor on board. Satellite destroyed after 105 days.

Incident 377

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
8 Mar 1981:

Failure to close a valve at the Tsuruga processing plant allows over 4,000 gallons of highly radioactive water to leak from a storage tank onto the floor of the waste reprocessing building. The water escapes the building through a manhole cover and a crack in the floor to wind up in Urazoko Bay, where high levels of cobalt-60 and manganese-54 are later found in the bay's edible seaweed. The leak is not noticed for three hours. During that time, 56 plant workers are exposed, receiving an average dose of 10 mRem.

The accident is not disclosed to the public until 18 April. Shortly afterward, six officials of Japan Atomic Power Corporation, including the Tsuruga plant's director, are replaced because of their roles in the cover-up. It is also found that serious incidents have occurred previously at the plant.

Incident 378

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
12 Mar 1981: A tornado washes nuclear waste from the French test site on Muraroa Atoll into the lagoon.

Incident 379

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
2 Apr 1981: A technician in Saintes, France is changing the cobalt-60 source in a teletherapy machine. The source falls to the floor and the technician picks it up, holding it for 11 seconds. His hands receive a dose of over 10,000 rads, and both have to be amputated. Another worker also has to have both hands amputated, and a third loses three fingers. Eight other workers in the room receive doses of 1 to 100 rads.

Incident 380

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
U.S. Nuclear Weapons Accidents (Tiwari & Gray)
9 Apr 1981:

The USS George Washington (SSBN-598) collides with the 2,350-ton Japanese freighter Nissho Maru in the East China Sea about 110 miles south-southwest of Sasebo, Japan. The freighter's hull is holed and it sinks in 15 minutes, killing two Japanese crewmen. Another 13 are rescued. The submarine suffers minor damage to its sail.

The incident, a month before a scheduled meeting between Prime Minister Zenko Suzuki and President Ronald Reagan, sparks a political furor in Japan. The United States is criticized because:

  • It took 24 hours to notify Japanese authorities;
  • Neither the submarine nor a P-3 Orion aircraft overhead made any attempt at rescue;
  • The submarine was operating so close to Japan, less than 20 miles outside its territorial waters.

The Navy initially says the George Washington surfaced but could not see any ship in distress becasue of fog and rain. President Reagan and other U.S. officials express regret over the accident, offer compensation and reassure the Japanese that there is no cause for worry about radioactive contamination. However, they do not explain what the submarine was doing so close to Japan or whether it carried nuclear weapons. (The George Washington is capable of carrying 16 ballistic missiles with 10 warheads each.)

Over the next several months, as the controversy continues, the Navy: accepts responsibility to preclude length litigation; is criticized for its preliminary report which says the submarine and Orion claimed not to have realized the freighter was sinking; relieves and reprimands the submarine's commander and officer of the deck. On 31 August the Navy releases a final report which concludes that the accident resulted from a highly coincidental set of circumstances, compounded by errors on the part of some members of the submarine's crew.

Incident 381

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
25 Apr 1981: Repairs at Tsuruga nuclear power plant expose more than 100 workers.

Incident 382

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
15 May 1981: A hairline crack is discovered in the main cooling system of the Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Valiant as it returns to Devonport after developing a fault in its cooling system while operating off the Cornish coast. The crack does not affect reactor operation and the vessel returns to port under its own power. The Royal Navy denies claims that contaminated water was discharged into Plymouth Sound, saying "A very small quantity of water leaked out [from the reactor] and this was drained off into a lead tank in a barge for treatment.

Incident 383

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
22 May 1981: Browns Ferry nuclear power plant in Decatur, AL is shut down when a leak is discovered in "primary containment building". 38 tonnes of radioactive water spill.

Incident 384

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
26 May 1981: A Marine EA-6B Prowler aircraft crashes while landing on the USS Nimitz (CVN-68) operating 70 miles off Jacksonville, Florida, killing 14 and injuring 48. The Prowler reportedly applies power when landing and veers to the right, running into parked aircraft and causing ammunition to explode. The fires take an hour to extinguish. A total of $100 million in damage is done, with three F-14 Tomcats destroyed and 16 other aircraft damaged. The Nimitz returns to Norfolk, Virginia for several days of repairs. The crash sparks a five-month debate between the Navy and Rep. Joseph D. Addabo (D-NY), Chairman of the House Defense Appropriations Subcommittee, over whether drug use aboard the carrier may have been a contributing factor.

Incident 385

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
1 Jun 1981: Accident at La Hague processing plant in France.

Incident 386

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
3 Jun 1981: Automatic shutdown of Buchanan, New York's Indian Point nuclear power plant occurs after an electrical failure.

Incident 387

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
Jun 1981: A 3,000 gallon leak of radioactive water occurs at the Salem 2 reactor in Salem, New Jersey.

Incident 388

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
28 Jun 1981: In Seneca, SC, 54 workers at Oconee nuclear power plant are contaminated with radioactive water during refueling operations.

Incident 389

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
3 Jul 1981: Fire occurs at the North Anna nuclear power plant in Mineral, VA.

Incident 390

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
21 Jul 1981: 40 workers exposed to radioactivity when one ton of waste water is leaked at Hamaoka nuclear power plant in Japan.

Incident 391

Source(s): Oklahoma industrial radiography incident, 1981 (Last modified 11 May 2005)
29 Jul 1981: Douglas Crofut, an unemployed radiographer in Tulsa, Oklahoma, steals an industrial iridium-192 radiography source. The exposure he receives as a result proves fatal. The source suggests that this is intentional.

Incident 392

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
7 Aug 1981: At the Seqouyah nuclear power plant in Soddy-Daisy, TN, a reactor is shut down for repairs after a radioactive leak occurs.

Incident 393

Source(s):
Updated 12 Sep 2007
August: The heroic and tragic month for the Russian Navy (Pravda Online)
RANSAC Nuclear News (Compiled by Roman Sehling)
21 Aug 1981: K-122 surfaces in the Philippine Sea after a fire disables its propulsion system. The Echo-I class nuclear-powered submarine must be towed back to port for repairs. Reports indicate as many as 15 crewmen die.

Incident 394

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
27 Aug 1981: The USS Dallas (SSN-700) damages the lower portion of its rudder when it runs aground while approaching the Atlantic Underwater Test and Evaluation Center site at Andros Island in the Bahamas. After several hours, the submarine works itself free and returns on the surface to New London, CT for repairs.

Incident 395

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
1 Sep 1981: "According to raw CIA intelligence reports", a Soviet nuclear submarine operating in the Baltic Sea undergoes "a series of strong and sudden physical shocks". Following these, the submarine lies dead in the water and is taken under tow, but only moved during the hours of darkness. It arrives at Kaliningrad after 36 hours. There, some sailors are removed from a sealed compartment and flown to Riga, Latvia, where they are hospitalized. The CIA reports that all of these sailors show signs of terminal radiation sickness.

Incident 396

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
4 Oct 1981: Windscale reprocessing plant releases iodine-131 into local area at 300 times normal rate. The radioactive iodine contaminates milk supplies within a 2-mile radius of the plant in Cumbria, England. British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. does not announce the leak until 8 October.

Incident 397

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
27 Oct 1981:

A Soviet Whiskey-class diesel-powered attack submarine runs aground 10 km from the Swedish naval base of Karlskrona, 300 km south of Stockholm. The Swedes impound the submarine and question her captain. He claims that bad weather and a faulty compass led to the inadvertent intrusion into Swedish waters. Swedish authorities contend that the vessel would not have made it so far without good navigation. They charge it was involved in illegal reconnaissance or mine-laying operations and demand an apology from the Soviet Union.

On 29 October, a Soviet tug is turned back by Swedish warships. Another submarine is detected in Swedish waters and is pursued by antisubmarine warfare helicopeters until it disappears. On 2 November the submarine is refloated by Swedish tugboats to prevent heavy seas from battering it against the rocks.

On 5 November, Sweden's Foreign Minister Ullsten announces that the intruding submarine probably carries nuclear weapons, and wonders publically what this says about the Soviets, who "have created the impression that they are more in favor than the United States" of arms control. Sweden releases the sub on 6 November and states that Soviet proposals in regard to the Baltic as a "sea of peace" are no longer credible. It is reported on 6 May 1982 that the USSR paid Sweden costs of $212,000 arising from the incident.

Incident 398

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
2 Nov 1981: At Holy Loch, Scotland, a Poseidon ballistic missile is being moved aboard the submarine tender USS Holland (AS-32). An error by the crane operator drops the fully armed missile 13 to 17 feet; the fall is arrested by a safety device. Civilian observers warn that, had the missile struck the deck, a serious explosion with dispersal of radiation could have occurred. The Poseidon warhead uses an unstable conventional explosive known as LX-09. The U.S. Navy refuses to confirm or deny whether there were nuclear weapons on the missile and states "There was no damage done, no injuries occurred; there was no danger to personnel."

Incident 399

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
Nov 1981: Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) reveals that blueprints for the Unit 1 reactor at Diablo Canyon have somehow been switched with those for Unit 2, now under construction. The mixup affects stress calculation for piping hangers in both reactors, and causes startup of Unit 1 to be postponed until further notice. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is also investigating improper construction and the plant's ability to withstand an earthquake, since it was built on a previously unknown fault line.

Incident 400

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
1981: Public Citizen's Critical Mass Energy Project reports 4,060 mishaps and 140 serious incidents at U.S. nuclear power plants in 1981, up from 3,804 mishaps and 104 serious incidents the previous year.

Incident 401

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1982: While attempting to change tubes in an x-ray machine in La Plata, Argentina, the operator looks through the machine's window, not realizing it is powered up. He receives a whole-body dose of 12 rads and 580 rads to the lenses of his eyes, resulting in later development of cataracts.

Incident 402

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
25 Jan 1982: A steam pipe breaks at Rochester Gas & Electric's Robert E. Ginna nuclear power plant in Ontario, New York, spilling 15,000 gallons of radioactive coolant water on the plant floor. Small amounts of radioactive steam escape into the air.

Incident 403

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
Feb 1982: A 3,000 gallon leak of mildly radioactive water contaminates 16 workers at the Salem nuclear power plant in Salem, New Jersey.

Incident 404

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
22 Mar 1982: The USS Jacksonville (SSN-699) collides with the Turkish cargo ship General Z. Dogan while running on the surface 25 miles east of Cape Charles, Virginia. Damage to the Jacksonville is minor and characterized as "bumps and scrapes", while bow damage is reported on the General Z. Dogan.

Incident 405

Source(s):
Updated 12 Sep 2007
Project 705, 705K (Lira) — Alfa Class (Bellona)
NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
8 Aug 1982: The Soviet Project 705 Alfa-class submarine K-123 is on duty in the Barents Sea when a leak develops in her steam generator. This leads to a release of two tons of liquid metal coolant from the reactor. Presumably the sub is disabled and has to be towed home, and at least some of the crew is severely exposed. What is known is that it takes nine years to cool down and replace the irreparably damaged reactor, and to make other needed repairs.

Incident 406

Source(s): Health Physics, 1983 Nov; 45(5):961-8
2 Sep 1982: In order to fix a jammed conveyer belt, an employee of the gamma-irradiation facility at the Institute for Energy and Technology in Kjeller, Norway enters the irradiation chamber when a 65.7-kCi cobalt-60 source is in unshielded position. The victim receives an estimated whole-body radiation dose of 2.5Sv (about 1,000 rem) and dies after 13 days.

Incident 407

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
Sep 1982: A leak of radioactive gas occurs at the Salem nuclear power plant in Salem, New Jersey.

Incident 408

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
28 Sep 1982: The USS Sam Houston (SSN-609) spills less than 50 gallons of low-level radioactive water while it is in the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard at Bremerton, Washington for routine maintenance. The spill is stopped, the water is contained within the ship, and no radiation is released to the environment. Two individuals are in the area during the spill; one receives low-level exposure. The submarine's reactor is not operating at the time.

Incident 409

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
Oct. 1982: At the International Neutronics plant in Dover, New Jersey, radiation is used to treat gems for color, modify chemicals, and sterilize food and medical supplies. There is an accident involving a pump siphoning solution from the process baths to the plant's floor. The entire plant is contaminated, and contaminated water subsequently enters Dover's water system. Company executives conceal this event, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission only learns of it from a whistleblower ten months later. The company and one of its top executives are convicted by a federal court in 1986 of conspiracy and fraud. Radiation remains in the vicinity of the plant, but the NRC says the levels are not hazardous.

Incident 410

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
2 Nov 1982: A nuclear missile transporter crashes, killing one person and injuring two others. (Germany)

Incident 411

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
29 Nov 1982: The USS Thomas A. Edison (SSN-610) collides with the USS Leftwich (DD-984) 40 miles east of the U.S. naval base at Subic Bay, Philippines. The Edison is at periscope depth preparing to surface; it damages its sail and sail planes, but there is no flooding. Both ships remain operational after the accident.

Incident 412

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
1982: Public Citizen's Critical Mass Energy Project reports 84,322 nuclear power plant workers were exposed in 1982.

Incident 413

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
1983: The Department of Energy confirms that 1,200 tons of mercury have been released over the years from the Y-12 Nuclear Weapons Components Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In 1987, the DOE further reports that PCBs, heavy metals, and radioactive substances are in the groundwater beneath Y-12. It and the nearby K-25 and X-10 plants have contaminated the atmosphere, soils and streams in the area.

Incident 414

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
10 Jan 1983: Technical failure and human error cause accident at Browns Ferry nuclear power plant in Decatur, AL.

Incident 415

Source(s): The Satellite Encyclopedia: Cosmos 1402
Dangerous Spacecraft Reentries
Nuclear Thermal Rockets (PDF)
Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
7 Feb 1983:

Kosmos 1402, a nuclear reactor-powered radar ocean reconnaisance satellite (or RORSAT), is launched by the Soviet Union on 30 August 1982. Like the other 31 RORSATs, its reactor core is designed to separate and boost itself to a higher orbit where it will remain for hundreds of years while the fission products decay to safe levels. However, the core fails to perform this maneuver. Ground operators manage to detach it from Kosmos 1402, making it more likely to disintegrate, but it remains in the same orbit. The satellite reenters in two pieces on 30 December 1982 and 23 January 1983. The reactor core follows on 7 February 1983. All three pieces either burn up completely or fall into the ocean. The core enters the Atlantic 1,600km east of Brazil; much of its 50kg of U-235 apparently burns up in the atmosphere. Aside from a temporary elevation of uranium in air samples taken in the area, no significant contamination from it has been detected.

There was a French claim that a large piece had been found, but that turned out to be a fragment of a disco ball that fell off a truck.

Note: Greenpeace dates this event as 27 Feb 1983. I accordingly moved it ahead by 1 slot.

Incident 416

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
25 Feb 1983: During a problem at the Salem nuclear power plant in Salem, New Jersey, the Nuclear 1 reactor fails to shut down automatically. However, an operator spots the trouble and shuts it down manually 90 seconds before an "incident" can occur. The automatic shutdown had failed three days previously, and the plant released radioactive gas in March 1981 and September 1982.

Incident 417

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
4 Apr 1983: British journalists claim they have evidence that Australian aborigines were exposed to fallout during Britain's atomic-bomb testing between 1953 and 1962. Some of the aborigines were reportedly burned, blinded, and even killed. Previously secret documents reportedly say that pellets containing cobalt-60 were left scattered around the test site. The Ministry of Defense admits that fallout from the "Totem 1" tests passed over aborigine encampments 160km northeast of the test site.

Incident 418

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
15 Apr 1983: Incident at Turkey Point nuclear power plant in Florida City, FL.

Incident 419

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
22 Apr 1983: Reactor shut down due to failure of fuel rods at Kursk nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 420

Source(s): Russian Sub Casualties
Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
23 Jun 1983:

Soviet nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine K-429 (Charlie class) floods and sinks somewhere east of Sarannaya Bay off Petropavlosk naval base, near the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Pacific. Daring work by the captain and rescue divers rescues 104 of the 109 aboard, most of whom escape through torpedo tubes and make a free 150-foot ascent. The cause of the sinking is not known, but the absence of radioactive contamination in the area indicates that it probably is mechanical failure, not a reactor accident.

The Soviet navy salvages the vessel in early August 1983. She sinks again on 13 September while moored at home port; her captain is jailed for this accident. K-429 is again raised and leased to India, where she is renamed Chakra.

Incident 421

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
30 Jun 1983: Total loss of coolant at Embalse nuclear power plant in Argentina.

Incident 422

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
1 Jul 1983: Technical failure causes release of radioactive Iodine-131 from the Phillipsburg nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 423

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
21 Jul 1983: A private research group in the U.S., the Fund for Constitutional Government reports that U.S. Navy nuclear ships have leaked radiation at least 37 times. The leaks reportedly contaminated coastal and inshore waters of Japan, Britain and the U.S. on more than a dozen occasions. The FCG's report accuses the Navy of "suppressing information about a 30 year history of radiation accidents and safety problems."

Incident 424

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
Aug 1983: Canadian nuclear power plants leak 3,700 liters of tritium-contaminated heavy water into Lake Huron and Lake Ontario.

Incident 425

Source(s): LA-13638: A Review of Criticality Accidents, 2000 Revision (PDF, 3.8 MB)
23 Sep 1983:

Located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the RA-2 Facility houses a low-power (the source says "essentially zero power") experimental reactor assembly. This can hold 19 fuel-element plates, but four of them are normally removed and two cadmium plates inserted for reaction-rate control. There is also a graphite reflector. The reactor vessel is filled with de-mineralized water for tests and is supposed to be drained during changes in fuel-plate configuration, or whenever people are in the room.

The reactor technician, a qualified operator with 14 years experience, is alone in the room making such a configuration change. The tank has not been drained. He inserts two new fuel-element plates while the cadmium plates are not installed. Criticality is apparently achieved during insertion of the second plate, since it is found partially inserted. The excursion yields approximately 4.5x1017 fissions. The operator's exposure, mostly on the upper right side of his body, is 2,000 rad from gamma rays and 1,700 from neutrons. He dies two days later. Two people in the control room receive doses of about 15 rad from neutrons and 20 from gamma rays. Six others receive smaller doses, down to 1 rad, and nine receive less than one rad.

Incident 426

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
1 Oct 1983: Low-level radioactive release occurs at Blayais nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 427

Source(s):
Updated 12 Sep 2007
Accidents 1983 (NuclearFiles.org)
2 Nov 1983: A disabled Victor-III class nuclear-powered attack submarine surfaces in the Atlantic between Bermuda and South Carolina. Soviet ships tow it to Cuba for repairs.

Incident 428

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
16 Nov 1983: Sellafield plant discharges highly radioactive wastes directly into the sea.

Incident 429

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
6 Dec 1983:

El Señor Vicénte Soledo Alardín is a scrap dealer in Juarez, Mexico. Unfamiliar with the dangers of radioactive materials, he removes the source from a radiation therapy machine he has acquired. The source consists of 6,010 pellets of cobalt-60 encased in a tungsten shell. This shell is damaged during the dismantling process. When Sr. Alardín drives to the salvage yard Jonke Fénix to sell his prize, some of the pellets spill in the bed of his truck and onto the roads. Each of them reportedly contains 70 microcuries of isotope and can deliver a dose of 25 R/h at close range.

The junkyard operator is equally unfamiliar with radioisotopes. During processing, more pellets are scattered throughout the yard, contaminating 60 employees and most of the metal at the facility. Meanwhile, Sr. Alardín's truck is parked elsewhere for two months with a flat tire. It contaminates another 200 people who live and work nearby. Some of their exposures are the largest ever recorded in Mexico. The truck is later found to emit 50R/h at a distance of one meter.

Scrap from the junkyard is sold to a smelting facility, contaminating 5,000 tons of steel with an estimated 300 curies of activity. The steel is made into building materials and legs for kitchen tables. Some of it winds up in the U.S. and Canada. The situation is only discovered months later when a truck delivering building materials to Los Alamos National Laboratory takes a wrong turn and drives through a radiation monitor, setting off an alarm.

Using special airborne detection equipment loaned by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Mexican government locates hot spots along the roads used to transport the original source. In some cases the highways have to be torn up to recover pellets embedded in the road surface. Mexico also condemns 109 houses in the state of Sinaloa due to contaminated building materials. The incident prompts the U.S. Customs Service and the NRC to install radiation detection equipment at all major border crossings.

Note: If the rating and quantity for the pellets are correct, there's no way they can add up to 300 Curies. My guess is the rating for each pellet should be 7,000 µCuries. This allows for a loss of about one-quarter of the pellets on the way to Jonke Fénix.

Incident 430

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1984: An operator in Mendoza, Argentina pushes the iridium-192 source into a radiography camera using his finger. The operator gets a whole-body dose of 11 rads, plus a burned fingertip.

Incident 431

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
16 Jan 1984: Information published in the Austrian Daily Courier and said to be confirmed by Czech opposition parties reveals that 30 Soviet soldiers died in a nuclear explosion on 24 May 1983. The explosion is thought to be caused by a Soviet short-range nuclear missile.

Incident 432

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
15 Feb 1984: The U.S. Navy's Nuclear Weapons Training Group Atlantic submits an "OPREP-3 Navy Blue Bent Spear" (reports a lost nuclear weapon) as a result of a failure in a W80 trainer warhead for the Tomahawk ship-launched cruise missile.

Incident 433

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
17 Feb 1984: Accident at Kozloduy nuclear power plant in Bulgaria.

Incident 434

Source(s): NRC Information Notice No. 85-57
Mar 1984:

At a fossil-fuel power plant under construction in Mohammedia, Morocco, iridium-192 sources are being used to radiograph welds. One of these sources, containing approximately 30 curies of iridium-192, apparently becomes disconnected from its drive cable and is not properly returned to its shielded container. Subsequently, a passing laborer notices the tiny metal cylinder on the ground and takes it home. During May and June of 1984, a total of eight persons, including the laborer and his entire family and some relatives, die with the clinical diagnosis of "lung hemorrhages." Other individuals also receive significant doses of radiation that require medical attention. Three severely exposed individuals are hospitalized at the Curie Institute in Paris and later released in apparently satisfactory condition.

It is initially assumed that the deaths are the result of poisoning. Only after the last family member has died is it suspected that the deaths might be due to radiation. The source is recovered in June 1984. Although the source container is marked by the internationally recognized radiation caution symbol, the source itself bears no markings.

There is no information available on the precautionary radiation surveys that may have been performed at the time of the incident. However, it is apparent from the stated facts that radiation surveys of the type described in the NRC regulations, if performed, would have disclosed the problem and may have prevented the incident.

Incident 435

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
17 Mar 1984: Emergency cooling system at San Onofre nuclear power plant in San Clemente, California fails.

Incident 436

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
21 Mar 1984:

The USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) is struck during night operations by a surfacing Soviet Victor-I class nuclear-powered attack submarine in the southern Sea of Japan, approximately 100 miles west of mainline Japan, while en route to the Yellow Sea. The Kitty Hawk sustains a minor hole below the water line in an aircraft fuel tank on her starboard side and continues normal operations. The Soviet vessel is observed dead in the water with a dent across its aft deck. It is aided by the Soviet Kara class cruiser Petropavlovsk and later towed by a Soviet salvage vessel to the naval base at Vladivostok. U.S. Navy officers say there is no evidence of leakage from the submarine.

The Kitty Hawk and her carrier group are taking part in joint U.S.-Korean "Team Spirit 84" exercises. The submarine, along with Soviet surface ships, has been follwoing these exercises for several days. Navy officials report that, after simulating its destruction 15 times, carrier group ships break contact with the submarine to enter a new phase of maneuvers in which the Kitty Hawk attempts to evade the trailing Soviet surface ships. The submarine apparently loses track of the Kitty Hawk during this phase and surfaces in order to locate her, causing the collision.

Incident 437

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
2 Apr 1984: The Glasgow Herald reports that paint on the USS Sam Rayburn (SSN-635) is mildly radioactive when it returns from patrol in February 1984. The Navy says this radiation is so mild it cannot be detected by a Geiger counter. Rumors have been circulating that the submarine was involved in a collision in the fall of 1983. The Navy statement adds to the controversy.

Incident 438

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 Apr 1984: Technical failure at Sequoyah nuclear power plant in Soddy-Daisy, Tennessee spills radioactive coolant water.

Incident 439

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
12 May 1984: Uncontrolled power surge at Bohunice nuclear power plant in Slovakia.

Incident 440

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
17 May 1984: A fire breaks out aboard the USS Guitarro (SSN-665) during a training exercise 65 miles northwest of San Diego, California, near San Clemente Island. A sailor making rounds discovers heat, steam and a glow coming from the battery well when he opens a well hatch. The submarine heads for port. By the time it gets there, the fire is under control but still burning.

Incident 441

Source(s): Russian Sub Casualties
18 Jun 1984: Soviet Echo-II class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine K-131 experiences a fire in compartment 8 while returning to base on the Kola Peninsula. Thirteen crewmen die.

Incident 442

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
4 Aug 1984: Accident due to technical failure and human error at Browns Ferry nuclear power plant. 13 workers irradiated.

Incident 443

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
13 Aug 1984: Technical failure causes release of radiation and emergency shutdown at Bruno Loyshner nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 444

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
25 Aug 1984: French freighter sinks in English Channel with 375 tonnes uranium hexafluoride on board.

Incident 445

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
18 Sep 1984: While fishing in the Sea of Japan, the Japanese shrimping boat Sumiyoshi Maru catches a submarine in its net and is pulled backward until the 3-cm cable supporting the net is cut. On 20 September a Soviet Golf-II diesel-powered ballistic missile submarine is observed on the surface in the Sea of Japan, 380 miles west of Tokyo, with white smoke coming from its conning tower. Over the next two days it is attended by several Soviet ships. It proceeds toward Vladivostok under its own power on 23 September. Reports speculate that the problem was an electrical overload caused by its tussle with the Sumiyoshi Maru.

Incident 446

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
18 Sep 1984:

A Soviet Victor-I class nuclear-powered attack submarine is badly damaged when it collides with a Soviet tanker in the Strait of Gibraltar. The collision rips off the twin-hulled submarine's bow section, exposing the sonar and torpedo-tube compartments. It proceeds to the Soviet anchorage at Hammament, Tunisia for emergency repairs, and returns to its home port on the Kola Peninsula in early October.

Reports are that the submarine was travelling in the "noise shadow" of the tanker to avoid detection while exiting the Mediterranean Sea. Jane's Defense Weekly notes that the alternating layers of cold and warm water in the narrow Strait make it likely for a submarine "to encounter sudden thermal gradients which make her porpoise upwards," and this is thought to be the cause of the accident.

Incident 447

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
21 Sep 1984: The USS Jacksonville (SSN-699) collides with a Navy barge off Norlolk, Virginia while travelling on the surface. The submarine strikes the barge amidships and reportedly sustains minor damage to her bows.

Incident 448

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
7 Oct 1984: Emergency shutdown of Paks nuclear power plant in Hungary.

Incident 449

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
12 Dec 1984: Fire at Kalinin nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 450

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
Dec 1984:

The Fernald Uranium Plant, a 1,050-acre uranium fuel production complex 20 miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio is temporarily shut down after the Department of Energy discovers that excessive amounts of radioactive materials have been released through ventilation systems. Subsequent reports document the following discharges into the valley of the Greater Miami River over the previous thirty years:

  • 39 tons of uranium dust released into the atmosphere;
  • 83 tons of uranium dust released into surface water;
  • 230 tons of radioactive substances released into pits and swamps;
  • 5,300 tons of hazardous chemicals released into pits and swamps.

Significant quantities of the radioactives and other hazardous materials in those pits and swamps find their way into local groundwater.

In addition, 337 tons of uranium hexafluoride are found to be unaccounted for, their whereabouts completely unknown. Residents of the valley sue in 1988 and are granted a $73 million settlement by the government. Plant operations are not shut down permanently until 1989.

Incident 451

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1985: An electron accelerator in China exposes two people significantly.

Incident 452

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1985: An accident in China involving gold-197 internally injures two people, killing one.

Incident 453

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1985: In China, an accident involving cesium-137 results in exposures to three people of 800 to 1,000 rem.

Incident 454

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1985: An unshielded radiography source burns a worker's hand in Odessa, Texas.

Incident 455

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
11 Jan 1985: Pershing-II missile explodes in Germany, killing 3.

Incident 456

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
6 Mar 1985: Emergency cooling system out of order at Grohnde nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 457

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
3 Jun 1985: A 61-year-old woman is undergoing therapy in Marietta, Georgia. The software controlling the Therac 25 radiation therapy accelerator has a defect allowing overexposure under certain conditions. The woman receives a dose of 15,000 to 20,000 rads and immediately reports pain. Clinic personnel do not recognize the accident until days later when the woman develops radiation burns. She loses one breast and suffers permament impairment.

Incident 458

Source(s): Davis Besse (Absolute Astronomy)
Davis Besse Nuclear Power Plant (Asbestos.com)
Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
9 Jun 1985: Both main feedwater pumps in the cooling system at Davis-Besse nuclear power plant in Ohio shut down in succession. An operator makes mistakes in trying to start the emergency pumps, causing them to shut down as well. Had backup systems not functioned properly, a meltdown could have resulted. The NRC ultimately classifies the event as a "site area emergency."

Incident 459

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
10 Jun 1985: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Resolution is struck by the American yacht Proud Mary off Cape Canaveral, Florida in the early morning. The submarine suffers only minor damage, but the yacht has to be towed back to port. Fresh from a major refit at the naval shipyard in Rosyth, Scotland, the Resolution is en route to a position from which it can test-fire one of its Polaris missiles down the Atlantic Missile Range.

Incident 460

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
20 Jun 1985: Two trucks carrying nuclear bombs collide in Scotland.

Incident 461

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
27 Jun 1985: Explosion and steam leakage kill 14 at Balakovo nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 462

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
15 Jul 1985: An empty barrel from a ship which sank with a radioactive nuclear cargo washes up on the Danish coast.

Incident 463

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
26 Jul 1985: A defect in the computer program controlling the Therac 25 radiation therapy accelerator causes overexposure of a patient at the Ontario Cancer Foundation in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The 40-year-old woman, being treated for cancer, receives a localized dose of 13,000 to 17,000 rads and quickly reports pain. Operators do not recognize the problem until the woman returns to the clinic with radiation burns on 29 July. She dies of the original cancer on 3 November 1985.

Incident 464

Source(s): The Russian Northern Fleet: Nuclear Submarine Accidents
NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
10 Aug 1985: The Project 671 Victor-I class submarine K-314 is at the Chazma Bay naval yard outside Vladivostok. During refueling operations, the reactor goes critical because control rods have been incorrectly withdrawn when the reactor lid is raised. The ensuing explosion releases large amounts of radioactivity, contaminating an area 6km in length on the Shotovo Peninsula and the sea outside the naval yard. Fortunately, the cloud does not reach Vladivostok. Ten people working on the vessel die in the accident. The damaged reactor compartment still contains its nuclear fuel.

Incident 465

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
30 Aug 1985: Fire in a barrel of radioactive waste at Karlsruhe nuclear nuclear complex in Germany.

Incident 466

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
31 Aug 1985: Fire breaks out at Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan during routine shutdown.

Incident 467

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
Sep 1985: A defect in the computer program controlling the Therac 25 radiation therapy accelerator causes overexposures to patients. A woman who receives several treatments from September 1985 until 6 January 1986 at Yakima Valley Memorial Hospital in Yakima, Washington suffers burns. Her injuries are not recognized as radiation burns until she suffers another injury in 1987.

Incident 468

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
8 Oct 1985: Accidental radioactive release into the sea from Hinkley Point nuclear power plant in Britain.

Incident 469

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
24 Oct 1985: USS Swordfish (SSN-579) suffers a propulsion casualty while operating as part of the U.S. Pacific Fleet.

Incident 470

Source(s): The Russian Northern Fleet: Nuclear Submarine Accidents
Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
Dec 1985: The reactor of the nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine K-431 (Project 675 Echo-II class) overheats while the vessel is returning to base at Vladivostok. It is now laid up at the naval base in Pavlosk.

Incident 471

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
26 Dec 1985: Accidental reactor shutdown due to technical failure at Rancho Seco nuclear power plant in US.

Incident 472

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
31 Dec 1985: The USS Narwhal (SSN-671) drifts for hours in Palma Bay, Palma Mallorca, Spain after its mooring cable breaks on New Year's Eve.

Incident 473

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1986: Two individuals in Kaifeng City, China are accidentally exposed for about three minutes to a cobalt-60 source. They receive whole-body doses of 260 and 350 rads and develop acute radiation sickness.

Incident 474

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1986: While changing radiotherapy sources, an operator in England is exposed to a cobalt-60 source, receiving a 1,500-rad dose to one hand. Reddening and blistering of the skin develop two weeks later.

Incident 475

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
6 Jan 1986:

A container of highly toxic gas explodes at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium processing plant in Gore, OK. One worker dies when his lungs are destroyed; 130 others seek medical treatment. In response, the government fines the plant owner $310,000, citing poorly trained workers, poorly maintained equipment, and a disregard for safety and the environment.

Note: Sequoyah Fuels is owned at this time by Kerr-McGee. See also 13 Nov 1974 and 24 Nov 1992.

Incident 476

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
13 Jan 1986: A Japanese maritime patrol aircraft spots a Soviet Echo-II class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine under tow by a Soviet salvage vessel about 280 miles northwest of Okinawa.

Incident 477

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
5 Feb 1986: An "Amber alert" is declared at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Britain. This indicates an emergency in one building and a threat to the rest of the plant.

Incident 478

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 Feb 1986: Release of 13 tonnes of radioactive carbon dioxide from the Transfynydd nuclear power plant in Wales.

Incident 479

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 Feb 1986: Three workers suffer contamination at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria.

Incident 480

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
13 Mar 1986: The USS Nathanael Greene (SSBN-636) runs aground in the Irish Sea, suffering damage to its ballast tanks and rudder. A Navy spokesman says "There was no effect on the propulsion, no injuries, and no damage to the Poseidon nuclear missiles." The submarine sails under its own power to Holy Loch, Scotland for emergency repairs. On 25 April it travels submerged to Charleston, SC. The extent of the damage leads to the vessel being decommissioned, partly in order to satisfy SALT II Treaty limitations on ballistic missiles.

Incident 481

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
21 Mar 1986:

At the East Texas Cancer Center in Tyler, Texas, one male patient is overexposed to radiation by a Therac 25 on 21 March, immediately feeling the pain of the estimated 16,500- to 25,000-rad localized dose. He receives various other radiation injuries over the next few weeks and dies five months after the initial exposure.

On 11 April, another male patient receives an overexposure to his face which produces immediate skin burns. He goes into a coma and dies on 1 May of radiation injury to the brain and brain stem.

A physicist on the staff of the ETCC delves into the problem and eventually identifies the software defect that is causing this rash of overexposures in clinics using the Therac 25.

I could be wrong, but what I remember is that an uninitialized variable in the program set up the machine for maximum exposure unless the operator manually entered a dose value at the start of every treatment.

Incident 482

Source(s): Chernobyl Accident: Nuclear Issues Briefing Paper 22 (UIC, June 2005)
Chernobyl Accident (World Nuclear Association — June 2005)
Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl (US Department of State Bulletin: July 1986)
The international communications platform on . . . the Chernobyl disaster
NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
26 Apr 1986: A test of Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant near Kiev, USSR (now part of Ukraine) at excessively low power levels causes a runaway reaction. the core explosion and resulting fire in the graphite moderator kill 31 personnel, and several dozen more die from radiation exposure suffered during attempts to fight the fire. Dangerous levels of contamination cover the city of Pripyat, essentially a support community for the nuclear plant, and significant amounts are blown westward over much of Europe. An area of some 4,000 square miles becomes unusable for an indefinite period. The entire population of Pripyat is belatedly evacuated, as are 800,000 people from fallout areas of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus. The official death toll is still being tallied up.

Incident 483

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
29 May 1986: The USS Atlanta (SSN-712) runs aground in the Strait of Gibraltar, damaging sonar gear and puncturing a ballast tank in the bow section. Navy officials stress that no radiation leaks from the nuclear reactor and no crew members are injured. With water entering through holes in the ballast tank, the vessel limps to Gibraltar for repairs.

Incident 484

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
4 May 1986: An experimental THTR-300 PBMR located in Hamm-Uentrop, Germany is touted as the beginning of a "new generation" of accident-resistant reactor design. After the Chernobyl accident, the West German government discloses that its 300-MW reactor leaks radiation when one of its spherical fuel pellets lodges in the pipe used to deliver fuel elements to the core and attempts to dislodge it damage its cladding. Because the reactor has no containment building, contamination spreads as far as 2 km from the facility. This is initially blamed on the Chernobyl accident, but scientists in the Freiburg area announce that it is of a different character. This attempt to conceal the malfunction leads the government to shut down the reactor pending a review. Continuing technical problems result in its permanant shutdown for decommissioning in 1988.

Incident 485

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
14 May 1986: The power lines to the Palo Verde nuclear power plant in Wintersburg, Arizona are sabotaged.

Incident 486

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
20 May 1986: Five workers at La Hague processing plant in France are exposed to radiation after an accident.

Incident 487

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
May 1986: During routine maintenance at the Sellafield reprocessing plant, two workers are exposed to plutonium oxide.

Incident 488

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
14 May 1986: A truck carrying low-level radioactive material swerves to avoid a farm implement on Route 84 in Idaho and falls off a bridge, dumping part of its cargo into the Snake River. Officials report finding measurable contamination.

Incident 489

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
1986: The NRC revokes the license of a Radiation Technology, Inc. plant in New Jersey for worker safety violations. A safety interlock to prevent people entering the irradiation chamber during operation is bypassed, and a worker receives a near-lethal dose of radiation. Among the other 32 violations cited by the NRC is throwing radioactive garbage out with the regular trash.

Incident 490

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
Jun 1986: Unit 2 at the La Salle County nuclear power plant in Seneca, Illinois fails to shut down properly in response to a mechanical malfunction. Comonwealth Edison does not alert the NRC or inform the local population for more than 12 hours.

Incident 491

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
23 Jun 1986: Twelve people receive "slight" plutonium contamination while inspecting a storeroom at Tokai-mura nuclear complex in Japan.

Incident 492

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
30 Jul 1986: Human error causes the warhead to be knocked off a Pershing missile in Germany.

Incident 493

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 Aug 1986: Flooding occurs at Cattenom nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 494

Source(s): Hiroshima Peace Site (English pages): General Nuclear-Related Damage
11 Sep 1986: HPC report: "A Soviet nuclear submarine mistakenly launched a missile that landed in Chinese territory near the China-Soviet border."

Incident 495

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
15 Sep 1986: Fire breaks out on board a U.S. plane carrying nuclear weapons.

Incident 496

Source(s): The Russian Northern Fleet: Nuclear Submarine Accidents
Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
Hazardous Duty: Nuclear Submarine Accidents
3 Oct 1986:

The Soviet nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine K-219 (Project 667A Yankee-I class), patrolling submerged 480 miles east of Bermuda, suffers an explosion and fire in one of its ballistic missile tubes. The explosion kills three crew members and causes a leak in the missile compartment. The submarine surfaces and the second reactor, which was offline at the time of the accident, is quickly started up. Despite the fact that water is entering the missile compartment, a fire breaks out there. The water apparently causes an electrical short circuit, triggering a scram of one of the two reactors. Another life reportedly is lost "in the struggle to lower the control rods." The submarine begins to lose buoyancy as water enters the ballast tanks. When the second reactor breaks down, the crew is transferred to a rescue vessel. The captain and nine crew members remain in the conning tower until the bow begins to sink; then the ship is abandoned.

North American television and newspapers carry pictures of the stricken submarine with steam and smoke issuing from one of its missile tubes. General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev sends President Reagan a private communication regarding the accident in advance of the public announcement on 4 October, assuring him that there was no danger of nuclear explosion, radioactive contamination, or accidental launch of nuclear missiles. U.S. forces sample the air and water around the submarine and detect no radioactivity. Their conclusion is that the explosion resulted from the missile's nitrogen tetroxide propellant interacting with water in the tube. The submarine sinks under tow at 1103 hours on 6 October in 18,000 feet of water about 600 miles northeast of Bermuda. Her captain is charged with crimes against the state, but Gorbachev orders the charges dropped.

Incident 497

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
31 Oct 1986: In late October, the USS Augusta (SSN-710) is damaged in an undersea collision while on a routine training patrol in the Atlantic. No crew members are injured and the vessel returns to Groton, CT for $2.7 mission of repairs. According to unnamed U.S. Defense Department sources, it is unclear whether the submarine struck the ocean floor or an underwater object, but there was no risk of the submarine sinking or danger to the nuclear reactor. A Defense Department spokesman refuses to comment on a CBS News report that the Augusta "very possibly" collided with a Soviet submarine.

Incident 498

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
9 Dec 1986: An explosion at the Surry nuclear power plant in Gravel Neck, Virginia kills four workers.

Incident 499

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
Dec 1986: At the Edwin I. Hatch nuclear power plant in Baxley, Georgia, approximately 141,000 gallons of radioactive water leak out of storage pools for spent fuel rods. An estimated 84,000 gallons pass through storm drains into wetlands on the plant property. Following the accident, Georgia Power issues a press statement claiming that only 5,000 gallons of water have leaked and assuring the public that there is no threat to health.

Incident 500

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
1986:

The U.S. government releases 19,000 pages of previously classified documents which reveal that the Hanford Engineer Works in Richland, Washington is responsible for the release of significant amounts of radioactive materials into the atmosphere and the adjacent Columbia River. Between 1948 and 1966, Hanford discharged billions of gallons of liquids and billions of cubic meters of gases containing plutonium and other radioactive substances into the Columbia Basin environment. Although deleterious effects were noticed as early as 1948, all reports critical of the facility remained classified.

By the summer of 1987, the cleanup cost was estimated to be $48.5 billion. In July 1990, the Technical Steering Panel of the government-sponsored Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project released the following statistics: Of the 270,000 people living in the affected area, most received low doses of radiation from iodine, but about 13,500 received a total dose some 1,300 times the annual amount of airborne radiation considered safe for civilians by the Department of Energy. Approximately 1,200 children received doses in excess of this number, and many more received additional doses from contaminants other than iodine.

Note: Hanford is a bad deal that may fairly be called the American Mayak. But this report is not a clear explanation of the problem. See also May 1997 and July 2000.

Incident 501

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1987: An individual accidentally enters the irradiation room at a facility in Zhengzhou, China. He is exposed to the cobalt-60 source for 10 to 15 seconds, getting a whole-body dose of 135 rads. Four hours later he suffers anorexia and nausea and subsequently develops radiation sickness from which he recovers slowly.

Incident 502

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
10 Jan 1987: Nuclear transport accident in the UK.

Incident 503

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
17 Jan 1987: A defect in the computer program controlling the Therac 25 radiation therapy accelerator causes overexposure of patients. A male patient at Yakima Valley Memorial Hospital in Yakima, Washington reports pain immediately after receiving an estimated 8,000 to 10,000-rad dose. The patient has terminal cancer but dies in April 1987, earlier than projected, of complications related to the radiation overdose.

Incident 504

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
18 Mar 1987: Fire and release of radioactivity in Australian nuclear research facility.

Incident 505

Source(s): A Short Superphenix Chronology (Scroll down to Part II)
Mar 1987: France's Superphenix experimental breeder reactor develops a sodium leak of 500kg per day from the main fuel transfer tank to the secondary shell. The accident puts the entire fuel loading and unloading device out of operation. A new device has to be designed.

Incident 506

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
5 May 1987: Pershing nuclear missile ends up in a ditch after after a transport accident at Heilbronn, Germany.

Incident 507

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
29 May 1987: Radioactive oil emitted from Heysham nuclear power plant during cleaning operations. (UK)

Incident 508

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
14 Jun 1987: Storage facility at La Hague reprocessing plant contaminated by radioactive steam due to a ventilation system breakdown.

Incident 509

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
Jul 1987: A foreign company dumps chemical wastes at the port of Koko in Nigeria. Some of the wastes contain radioactive materials. Examination of 26 workers who handled the wastes shows chemical injuries along with minor effects of exposure to radiation.

Incident 510

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
2 Aug 1987: Elevated radiation level after Soviet nuclear test. (Where ???)

Incident 511

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
26 Aug 1987: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered attack submarine HMS Conqueror suffers a fire while at Devonport for a four-month overhaul, damaging its engine room. The British Navy stresses that the fire was far from the submarine's nuclear reactors.

Incident 512

Source(s): The Goiânia Radiation Incident: A Failure of Science and Society
Case Study: Accidental Leakage of Cesium-137 in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987
Cesium Radiation Dispersal Disaster in Goiania, Brazil (SEMP Biot #234)
Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
13 Sep 1987: Scavengers raid an abandoned cancer clinic in Goiania, Brazil. They dismantle a radiation therapy machine and remove its 1,400-Curie cesium-137 source, which they sell to a junkyard. Five days later, a junkyard worker breaks open the lead canister to find a blue-glowing powder. Pinches of this material are sold as curiosities and good-luck charms; some people rub it on their bodies. The crisis is not discovered until 28 September, when a worker at the Goiania public clinic correctly diagnoses a case of radiation poisoning. Contamination is found on 244 people; 54 require immediate hospitalization, and the 20 most severely exposed receive doses of 100 to 800 rad. Many are internally contaminated as well. It is no doubt due to prompt, effective medical intervention that only four die.

Incident 513

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
1 Oct 1987: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Renown suffers a leak of reactor coolant during tests in the reactor compartment while at the Rosyth naval base, Scotland for a refit. The Navy says it was a minor incident "without any radiation hazard".

Incident 514

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
Oct 1987: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission shuts down the Oyster Creek nuclear power plant in Forked River, New Jersey when it finds plant operators have disabled key safety valves during a test and attempted to cover up the violation by destroying records.

Incident 515

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
7 Oct 1987: Staff of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board discover contaminated dirt and asphalt in a parking lot in northeast Calgary, Alberta. A spokesman says the contamination poses no health hazard "because it is in a parking lot."

Incident 516

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
17 Dec 1987: Severe incident at Biblis nuclear power plant, Germany.

Incident 517

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
22 Dec 1987: Accidental release of 50 tonnes of water from Atucha nuclear power plant, Argentina.

Incident 518

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
1987: The Idaho Falls Post Register reports that plutonium has been found in sediments hundreds of feet below the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, an experimental reactor testing station and nuclear waste storage site located near Idaho Falls.

Incident 519

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
1988: The National Research Council panel releases a report listing 30 "significant unreported incidents" at the Savannah River production plants over the previous 30 years. As with their report on Hanford Engineer Works in 1986, the panel noted significant groundwater contamination due to pushing production of radioactive materials past prudent limits at this weapons complex. In January 1989, scientists discovered a fault running under the entire site through which contaminants reached the underground aquifer, a major source of drinking water for the southeast U.S. Turtles in nearby ponds were found to contain strontium-90 at up to 1,000 times normal background levels.

Incident 520

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1988: At an irradiation facility in Zhao Xian, China, an individual accidentally enters the source room, becoming exposed to a cobalt-60 source for about 40 seconds. He gets a whole-body dose of about 520 rads, suffers acute radiation sickness, recovers, and remains alive three years later.

Incident 521

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1988: A radiotherapy machine calibration error at the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital in Exeter, England leads to the overexposure of 205 patients.

Incident 522

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
26 Jan 1988: The Royal Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Resolution suffers an electrical malfunction while docked at Faslane, Scotland. The Observer claims that the malfunction shuts down the primary coolant pumps, almost leading to a core meltdown. The Ministry of Defense denies this.

Incident 523

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
18 Feb 1988: A reactor core reportedly melts on the Soviet icebreaker Rossiya.

Incident 524

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
26 Feb 1988: Increased levels of radioactivity at Bohunice nuclear power plant in Slovakia.

Incident 525

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 Mar 1988: Leaks at Brunswick nuclear power plant in Southport, NC.

Incident 526

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
30 Mar 1988: Pipe rupture at Ignalina nuclear power plant in Lithuania.

Incident 527

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
9 Apr 1988: Leaks at Millstone nuclear power plant in Waterford, CT.

Incident 528

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
28 Apr 1988: Release of 5,000 Ci tritium from Bruyere le Chatel military nuclear complex in France.

Incident 529

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
6 Jun 1988: Radiation Sterilizers, Inc. reports that a leak of cesium-137 has occurred at their Decatur, Georgia facility. Seventy thousand medical supply containers and milk cartons are recalled for exposure to radiation. Ten employees also receive significant exposures; three of them have "enough on them that they [contaminate] other surfaces," according to Jim Setser of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources.

Incident 530

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 Mar 1988: Technical failure at Zorita nuclear power plant in Spain.

Incident 531

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
21 Jun 1988: Steam leak at Crystal River nuclear power plant in Red Level, FL.

Incident 532

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
5 Jul 1988: Leaking valve at Dodewaard nuclear power plant in The Netherlands.

Incident 533

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
13 Jul 1988: Accident due to technical failure of cooling system at Almaraz nuclear power plant in Spain.

Incident 534

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 Jul 1988: Pipe rupture at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 535

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
11 Aug 1988: Damage detected at Atucha nuclear power plant in Argentina.

Incident 536

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
21 Aug 1988: Equipment malfunction at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 537

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
2 Sep 1988: Equipment malfunction at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 538

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
4 Sep 1988: Fire at Perry nuclear power plant in North Perry, Ohio.

Incident 539

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
5 Sep 1988: Fire at Ignalina nuclear power plant in Lithuania.

Incident 540

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
17 Sep 1988: Road accident involving nuclear weapons convoy kills one person in Britain.

Incident 541

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
17 Sep 1988: Leak at Takahama nuclear power plant in Japan.

Incident 542

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
17 Sep 1988: Technical failure at Stade nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 543

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
25 Sep 1988: Leak at South Ukraine nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

Incident 544

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
26 Sep 1988: Problems discovered with piping equipment at Surry nuclear power plant in Gravel Neck, Virginia.

Incident 545

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
Oct 1988: In the nuclear trigger assembly facility at the Rocky Flats plant in Colorado, two employees and a Department of Energy inspector inhale radioactive particles. The plant is closed as a result. Several safety violations are cited, including radiation monitors out of calibration, inadequate fire equipment, and groundwater contaminated with radioactivity.

Incident 546

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
14 Oct 1988: Fire at Berkeley nuclear power plant in England.

Incident 547

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
15 Oct 1988: French officials carry out an experiment to test the effects of releasing 7,000 Curies of radioactivity.

Incident 548

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
1 Nov 1988: In November, according to a Soviet press account, the Soviet nuclear-powered icebreaker Rossiya narrowly avoids a reactor meltdown when coolant is accidentally released. Emergency procedures prevent the core from overheating. The ship is docked in Murmansk at the time.

Incident 549

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
11 Nov 1988: Accident during refueling of Soviet icebreaker Lenin.

Incident 550

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
30 Nov 1988: A 20-mm cannon on an A-7 Corsair aircraft accidentally fires during maintenance. Six other aircraft on board the USS Nimitz (CVN-68) are set ablaze, and one sailor is killed. The Nimitz continues operations in the Arabian Sea.

Incident 551

Source(s): Nuclear Power Plants - Spain
Fire at Vandellos I
The Dismantling of the Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant
Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
2 Dec 1988: Fire at Vandellos nuclear power plant in Spain.

Incident 552

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
3 Dec 1988: Explosion at the Burghfield Atomic Weapons Establishment in England.

Incident 553

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
13 Dec 1988: Four of the eight emergency installations discovered out of order at Brokdorf nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 554

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
23 Dec 1988: Two control rods jam at Blayais nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 555

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
29 Dec 1988: Pressure [relief] valve leak at Tihange nuclear power plant in Belgium.

Incident 556

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
30 Dec 1988: Reactor shutdown due to failure of control equipment at Pilgrim nuclear power plant in Plymouth, MA.

Incident 557

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
1988: Public Citizen's Critical Mass Energy Project reports 2,810 accidents in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants in 1987.

Incident 558

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1989: In Beijing, China, two individuals are accidentally exposed to a cobalt-60 source for about 4 minutes. They receive whole-body doses of 87 and 61 rads and suffer mild haemopoietic radiation sickness from which they both recover.

Incident 559

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1989:

An individual in China suffers a localized exposure of 1,837 rads from an iridium-192 source.

Note: Not 1,836, not 1,838 — but 1,837 rads.

Incident 560

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
4 Jan 1989: Control rod failure at Gravelines nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 561

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
Jan 1989: Scientists discover a fault under the Savannah River reprocessing plant that allows contamination from the plant to enter the region's aquifer.

Incident 562

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
17 Jan 1989: Running on the surface, the USS Norfolk (SSN-714) collides with the USS San Diego (AFS-6) as both ships are heading out to sea near the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel. No injuries are reported, and the ships incur only minor damage.

Incident 563

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
18 Jan 1989: Eight workers are contaminated at the Savannah River reprocessing plant in South Carolina.

Incident 564

Source(s): Case Histories of Three Industrial Irradiator Accidents
San Salvador irradiator accident, 1989 (Last modified 11 May 2005)
Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
5 Feb 1989: The Delmed Company operates a medical sterilizer firm in El Salvador's capital city of San Salvador. Sterilization is done by cobalt-60 sources on a remotely-controlled rack which slides in and out of its shield. When the source rack becomes stuck in the unshielded position and one source falls to the floor, the operator disables the alarms and enters the room with two other employees to fix it. All three receive estimated whole-body exposures of 400 to 600 rads; they are treated in San Salvador and later go to Mexico City for more specialized treatment. One dies 6.5 months later from lung damage complicated by injury sustained during treatment; the other two survive but lose their legs. Other employees may have been exposed as well. Since the radiation monitors have been disabled, workers entering the room unknowingly put themselves at risk.

Incident 565

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
24 Feb 1989: Short circuit in reactor at Leningrad nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 566

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
7 Mar 1989: Manual shutdown due to technical failure at McGuire nuclear power plant in Cornelius, North Carolina.

Incident 567

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
15 Mar 1989: Technical failure of fuel rods at Pickering nuclear power plant in Canada.

Incident 568

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
1 Apr 1989: Control rod failure at Gravelines nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 569

Source(s): The Russian Northern Fleet: Nuclear Submarine Accidents
Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
Russian Sub Casualties
NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
7 Apr 1989: The Soviet nuclear-powered attack submarine Komsomolets, K-278 (Project 685 Mike class), is running submerged at a depth of 160m about 180 miles south of Bear Island on her way to Zapadnaya Litsa, her home port. At 1103 hours an alarm sounds due to a fire in the seventh compartment. The vessel surfaces eleven minutes later. By this time the fire has shorted out the electrical system, tripping the reactor offline, and burned a hole in the compressed air system. The crew is unable to extinguish the fire, which is fanned by the compressed air leak. By 1700, the compressed air runs out and the Komsomolets loses buoyancy and stability. The crew begins to evacuate into life rafts, but there are not enough rafts and some have drifted too far away for crew members to reach. The submarine sinks at 1708 hours with a loss of 41 lives including her commander. Five officers try to enter an escape capsule, but three are felled by fumes. Then the release mechanism is jammed. The capsule does not separate until K-278 strikes the bottom 1685 meters down; then it shoots to the surface. One of the two occupants dies from air embolisms when the hatch is opened, due to the great pressure differential. The Aleksandr Khlobystsov arrives 81 minutes later and takes aboard 25 survivors and 5 fatalities. The exact cause of the fire is unknown.

Incident 570

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
6 May 1989: Fire in pump equipment at Bohunice nuclear power plant in Slovakia.

Incident 571

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
4 Jun 1989: Fire in the cables of the cooling pumps at Bohunice nuclear power plant in Slovakia.

Incident 572

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
11 Jun 1989: Spent fuel element dropped in the storage pool and damaged at Kruemmel nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 573

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
13 Jun 1989: Technical failure (cracks) in generator equipment at Zaporozhe nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

Incident 574

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
22 Jun 1989: Shutdown due to leak at Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

Incident 575

Source(s): Hazardous Duty: Nuclear Submarine Accidents
Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
26 Jun 1989:

The Russian Echo-II class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine K-192 surfaces in the Norwegian Sea, about 60 nautical miles north-west of Senja in Troms, Norway, after a leak develops in the primary cooling system for one of its two reactors. The reactor is not immediately shut down, and the contaminated coolant is pumped into the sea. The crew supplies additional cooling water from the submarine's fresh water tanks. When this runs out, the newly arrived Soviet Northern Fleet service ship Amur takes over the task of cooling the reactor. Its core temperature starts to come down. The Amur also takes the waste water on board, pumping it into tanks designed for that purpose.

At this point the crew of K-192 try to seal the leaking pipe. Coolant flow from Amur is shut off in order to permit this. For reasons that are in dispute, the support ship is late in restoring the flow; when it is restored, the cold liquid fractures overheated fuel elements. Amur cannot handle the now heavily contaminated water, and again it is pumped into the sea.

Eventually the reactor is brought under control. K-192 returns to the Kola Peninsula under diesel power, arriving on 28 June. The submarine is laid up at the Ara Bay facility until 1994; then it is towed to Navy yard No. 10 at Skval. There it remains, still containing its damaged reactor and fuel elements.

Crew members working on repairs have received significant doses of radiation; they are later treated, but details are not available. Releases of radioactive iodine are detected in the areas immediately surrounding the accident location, and sometime later at a monitoring post at Vardø in northern Norway.

Incident 576

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
1 Jul 1989: A flooding incident aboard the USS Sam Houston (SSN-713) results in eight crew members being reassigned for psychological reasons. Previously during 1989 the submarine has:
  • experienced a broken valve which causes her to "plunge nose down." (May)
  • accidentally snagged a tow cable of the tugboat Barcona, sinking the tugboat and drowning one of her crew. (14 June)
  • become entangled in the net of the fishing boat Fortuna. Damage to the net is $2,000. No injuries are reported. (19 June)
Both of the June incidents occurred near San Diego, California when the Houston was involved in filming The Hunt for Red October.

Incident 577

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
6 Jul 1989: Equipment malfunction at Biblis nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 578

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
16 Jul 1989: A Soviet Echo-II class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine is spotted on the surface in the Barents Sea off the coast of Norway. Smoke billows from her observation tower. According to the Soviets, the ship is on a training mission and has just shifted its power load to a battery when one of the cells short-circuits. The smoke is said to be exhaust from the submarine's diesel engine. This suggests a reactor problem, but is not conclusive.

Incident 579

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
24 Jul 1989: Refueling accident at Isar nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 580

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
27 Jul 1989: USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) spills 330 gallons coolant water into James River while docked at Newport News, Virginia. A shipyard spokesperson terms the amount of radioactivity released "miniscule".

Incident 581

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
30 Jul 1989: Tube rupture discovered at Barsebeck nuclear power plant in Sweden.

Incident 582

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
1 Aug 1989: A small fire on the USS Sam Houston (SSN-713) is reported.

Incident 583

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
5 Aug 1989: Fire breaks out in an electric motor on the Royal Navy nuclear-powered submarine HMS Valiant at the Faslane submarine base on the River Clyde in southwest Scotland. There are no reported injuries and a Defense Ministry spokesperson says the fire posed no danger to the submarine's reactor.

Incident 584

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
Aug 1989: A bubble of argon gas forms in the core of the "Phoenix" fast breeder reactor at Marcoule, France, causing the reactor to scram automatically three times. Engineers at the site reportedly do not realize the danger posed by the bubble, which might have led to a meltdown if it formed in another location.

Incident 585

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
Aug 1989: A report by the U.S. General Accounting Office documents excessive radioactive contamination at civilian sites which have been declared decommissioned. The sites are:
  1. Westinghouse Fuel Fabrication plant in Chester, Pennsylvania
  2. The Combination Engineering site in Hematite, Missouri
  3. The Texas Instrument plant south of Boston, Massachusetts
  4. The Gulf United Nuclear Corporation fabrication plant near Pawling, New York
  5. The Kerr-McGee facility in Cushing, Oklahoma
  6. The Kerr-McGee Cimarron Uranium Enrichment Facility in Crescent, Oklahoma
  7. The Nuclear Fuel Services site in Erwin, Tennessee
All of these sites have groundwater contamination higher than federal standards allow. Kerr-McGee's Cimarron Facility has levels 400 times higher than standards, and the Nuclear Fuels Services site exceeds those standards by 730 times.

Incident 586

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
Aug 1989:

A report by the Washington-based Nuclear Information and Resource Service shows that, of the 112 commercial nuclear power plants operating in the United States, 59 have not completed safety modifications required by the NRC in the wake of the Three Mile Island accident in 1979.

In addition, Congress is investigating allegations of bribery in the nuclear power industry. John Delcore, a worker who exposed poor safety practices at North East Utilities, was reportedly offered $15,000 for his silence. This may relate to the Millstone nuclear power plant in Waterford, CT. The Texas Utility Electric Company is also under investigation for bribes connected to problems at the Comanche Peak nuclear power plant.

Incident 587

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
9 Aug 1989: An accident at Canada's Pickering nuclear power plant exposes a mechanic to six times the legal yearly radiation limit. Another worker standing nearby receives a lesser exposure. The men are removing a control rod from the reactor when a radiation monitor worn by one of them goes off-scale. The protective gear they are using is intended for training and does not contain the proper lead shielding.

Incident 588

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
14 Aug 1989: Control and instrumentation failure at Grand Gulf nuclear power plant in Port Gibson, Mississippi.

Incident 589

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
26 Aug 1989: Technical failure at Ignalina nuclear power plant in Lithuania.

Incident 590

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
1 Sep 1989: Report: An incident involving a torpedo is reported on USS Sam Houston (SSN-713).

Incident 591

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
7 Sep 1989: Technical failure of control rods at Olkiluoto nuclear power plant in Finland.

Incident 592

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
9 Sep 1989: Technical failure of control rods at Olkiluoto nuclear power plant in Finland.

Incident 593

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
21 Sep 1989: Manual shutdown of WMP nuclear power plant in USA.

Incident 594

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
22 Sep 1989: The USS Narwhal (SSN-671) sustains minor damage when it is torn from its moorings by Hurricane Hugo. The ship is submerged at the Charleston Naval Base in South Carolina, and tied with two 3-inch ship's lines and nine double wires. Despite this, the captain discovers during the eye of the storm that the vessel has drifted to the center of the Cooper River. Tugboats and the submarine's crew try to return her to the dock, but fail. The captain then submerges the submarine where it is and it rides out the rest of the storm there.

Incident 595

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
27 Sep 1989: Two workers receive high doses of radiation when they accidentally touch a fragment of material from the disabled Unit 2 of Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania.

Incident 596

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
3 Oct 1989: Equipment malfunction at Biblis nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 597

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
12 Oct 1989: Valve malfunction at Surry nuclear power plant in Gravel Neck, Virginia.

Incident 598

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
23 Oct 1989: Failure of core cooling system at Dresden nuclear power plant in Morris, Illinois.

Incident 599

Source(s): Radiation Device 'Lost or Stolen" at Dounreay (13 March 2005)
23 Oct 1989:

A device used in the Caithness nuclear plant at Dounreay, Scotland to test radiation alarms is reported missing. Investigators discover it has not been seen for a month before that. Investigators suspect that the device, consisting of a steel tube and a glass bead of radioactive caesium-137, may have been stolen or sent to a local waste dump.

In response to a request from the Sunday Herald, Dounreay releases a copy of its internal report on the investigation into the loss in March 2005. This previously secret report describes an extensive search conducted of plant facilities. Personnel and vehicles entering and leaving the site were also examined, but there were gaps attributed to dead batteries in portable radiation monitors and to the lack of police resources. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Agency informed the public in 1989 of the disappearance of the source, distributed photographs, and publicly appealed for information.

Addressing the possibility that the source had inadvertently been discarded with plant garbage, the report described a search of an industrial waste skip at Dounreay and of Langlands Quarry, a landfill site near Thurso that was formerly used by the UKAEA. These searches, however, found no trace of the missing source. The conclusion was that the source never went into the trash stream or is buried too deep in the landfill to be detected.

The report is very critical of safety procedures in effect at the time. It notes that although the lead pot in which the source was kept was checked as present every working day, its contents were not. This was "not untypical", the report says. In general, it describes inadequate controls, records and guidance and broken radiation monitoring equipment.

Sources at Dounreay confirmed that information about the source has never turned up in the intervening years. According to Dr Michael Clark, a scientist from the government's National Radiological Protection Board, the lost source could still cause radiation burns in close contact with the skin.

Lorraine Mann, from Scotland Against Nuclear Dumping, expressed concern over these facts and criticized current safety standards at the Caithness plant. UKAEA spokesman Colin Punler disagreed, saying "Our records show that new procedures were introduced to improve the control of sources."

As the Sunday Herald predicted two years ago, Dounreay is now facing prosecution for leaking hundreds of thousands of radioactive particles into the sea and onto beaches. But it is unlikely to end up in court for losing the radiation source because that occurred while the plant was still protected by Crown immunity.

Incident 600

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
24 Oct 1989: A worker inhales poisonous fumes during an accident with a uranium cylinder at the ABB fuel fabrication plant in Vasteras, Sweden.

Incident 601

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
28 Oct 1989: Leak at Winfrith nuclear power plant in UK.

Incident 602

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
31 Oct 1989: A wave sweeps 3 sailors and 38 non-nuclear missiles from USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) during night-time cargo loading about 90 miles south of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. One sailor is drowned and two are rescued.

Incident 603

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
2 Nov 1989: "High levels of radioactive contamination reported at Soviet nuclear test site in Semipalatinsk."

Incident 604

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
8 Nov 1989: Dangerous cracks found at Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan.

Incident 605

Source(s): Lista Incidenti ad Unitá Navali Nucleari
(A list, in English, of maritime accidents generally from 1945 into 2000)
13 Nov 1989: Fire on the USS Finback (SSN-670) forces the vessel to cut short sea trials and return to port in Norfolk, Virginia. There are no reported injuries and the damage is minor.

Incident 606

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
14 Nov 1989: Breakdown of fuel rod control system at Oconee nuclear power plant in Seneca, South Carolina.

Incident 607

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
20 Nov 1989: Fire in turbine equipment at Kozloduy nuclear power plant in Bulgaria.

Incident 608

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
24 Nov 1989:

In order to test the emergency shutdown system in a new reactor at Greifswald nuclear power plant in East Germany, three of the six cooling water pumps are shut off. When a fourth pump breaks down, the reactor overheats and some local fuel element damage occurs. Apparently the relay that is supposed to trigger shutdown on failure of this pump is sticking.

Note: This facility had serious accidents in 1974, 1976, and 1981. Worse, normal conditions at the plant include sinking foundations, miswired cables, missing equipment, drunken workers... a veritable textbook case of how not to build and run a nuclear plant. The Atom City description is not fully coherent; I'm looking for a better one.

Incident 609

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
Nov 1989: Investigators from Scientec, Inc., an engineering management company specializing in nuclear safety issues, discover several kilograms of plutonium-239 in an exhaust duct for a plutonium processing building at Rocky Flats. In addition to being a serious lapse of inventory control, this amount of lost plutonium could potentially go critical under the right conditions, exposing workers to radiation and contaminating the environment. Rocky Flats management has been warned about previous losses of material and other problems, but apparently has not corrected its defective safety culture.

Incident 610

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
3 Dec 1989: Equipment malfunction at Madras nuclear power plant in India.
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