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To Open The Sky

The Front Pages of Christopher P. Winter

Accidents Involving Nuclear Energy

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1990 – 1999

Incident 611

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
16 Jan 1990: Loss of off-site power causes multiple equipment failures at the Dresden nuclear power plant in Morris, Illinois.

Incident 612

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
23 Jan 1990: At Ontario's Bruce A reactor, 12,000 liters of heavy water are inadvertently dumped.

Incident 613

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
28 Jan 1990: A pump failure occurs during shutdown at the Gravelines nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 614

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
20 Feb 1990: Eight employees receive radiation exposure at the Point Lepreau nuclear power plant in Canada.

Incident 615

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
23 Feb 1990: Ten tonnes of depleted uranium tetrafluoride powder are spilled at the Sequoyah Fuel Facility in Gore, Oklahoma.

Incident 616

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
11 Mar 1990: Equipment malfunctions at the Bruce nuclear power plant in Canada.

Incident 617

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
29 Mar 1990: Patient overexposed in USA by fluoroscopy errors.

Incident 618

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
Mar 1990: Failure of core cooling equipment occurs at Doel nuclear power plant in Belgium.

Incident 619

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
24 Apr 1990: Molten sodium coolant leaks from the prototype fast reactor at Dounreay, Scotland.

Incident 620

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
25 Apr 1990: Increased coolant level at the Bohunice nuclear power plant in Slovakia leads to flooding of the reactor building.

Incident 621

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
29 Apr 1990: The Superphenix fast breeder reactor at Creys-Malville, France is shut down when a sodium leak is detected.

Incident 622

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
3 May 1990: There is an equipment malfunction at the Rovno nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

Incident 623

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
8 May 1990: A pipe cracks at the South Texas nuclear power plant in Palácios, Texas.

Incident 624

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
21 May 1990: A leak of some 30 liters of sodium causes the Superphenix fast breeder reactor at Creys-Malville, France to be shut down.

Incident 625

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
26 May 1990: During refueling, five cubic meters of radioactive water spill at the Fessenheim nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 626

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
30 May 1990: The reactor at Kozloduy nuclear power plant in Bulgaria is shut down following an earthquake.

Incident 627

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
7 Jun 1990: The containment vessel of the reactor at Tarragona nuclear power plant in Spain develops a water leak.

Incident 628

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
10 Jun 1990: Edwin I. Hatch nuclear power plant in Baxley, Georgia is shut down due to a fire.

Incident 629

Source(s): Health Physics Society: Answer to Question #282 Submitted to "Ask the Experts"
Radioactive Source Horror Stories
21 Jun 1990:

At a commercial irradiation facility near Soreq, Israel, the cobalt-60 source rack sticks in the exposed position. Misinterpreting contradictory warning signals, the operator bypasses safety interlocks to enter the irradiation chamber and free the mechanism. He receives an estimated whole-body dose of 10-20 Grays and dies 36 days later.

Note: 1 Gray equals 100 rads.

Incident 630

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
Jul 1990: The Phenix reactor in Marcoule, France is shut down over concerns that an argon bubble has formed.

Incident 631

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
23 Jul 1990: A tritium leak occurs at Kruemmel nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 632

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
28 Jul 1990: An instrument fails at Big Rock Point nuclear power plant in Big Rock Point, Michigan.

Incident 633

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
27 Aug 1990: A fire disables cables at Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine, causing loss of control of the control rods.

Incident 634

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
16 Sep 1990: The Superphenix reactor in Creys-Malville, France is shut down due to technical failures.

Incident 635

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
28 Sep 1990: Cables carrying power to the reactor control and protection system overheat at Bohunice nuclear power plant in Slovakia.

Incident 636

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
30 Sep 1990: Reactor core cooling system fails at Palisades nuclear power plant in South Haven, Michigan.

Incident 637

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
3 Nov 1990: Failure of core cooling equipment at Doel nuclear power plant in Belgium.

Incident 638

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
17 Nov 1990: Equipment malfunction at Kursk nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 639

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 Nov 1990: Equipment malfunction at Tarapur nuclear power plant in India.

Incident 640

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
29 Nov 1990: Leak at Tokai nuclear power plant in Japan.

Incident 641

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
Dec 1990: Heavy snow collapses the roof of the turbine building at the Superphenix reactor in France.

Incident 642

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
4 Dec 1990: Two workers are irradiated during refueling at Blayais nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 643

Source(s): Health Physics Society: Answer to Question #282 Submitted to "Ask the Experts"
10 Dec 1990: Errors are made in the maintenance and calibration of a linear accelerator used for clinical radiotherapy in Zaragoza, Spain. Together with violations of proper procedures, these mistakes result in overexposure of 27 patients being treated for cancer between 10 and 20 December. The first signs of radiation injury are seen on 26 December; a total of 18 patients eventually die, and the others suffer major disabilities. This accelerator is related to the Therac-25 involved in several accidents in the United States and Canada.

Incident 644

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
20 Dec 1990: A control element is found to be damaged at Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 645

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
28 Dec 1990: Radiation leakage occurs at Sosnovy Bor nuclear power plant in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Incident 646

Source(s): The Dangers of Irradiation Facilities
1991: At a 3-million-electron-volt linear accelerator in Maryland, a worker ignores safety warnings and receives a 5,000-rad dose to his hand. He loses four fingers.

Incident 647

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1991: Prolonged chronic exposure (1977-1991) kills UK radiographer in 1992.

Incident 648

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
8 Feb 1991: Release of radioactivity from Fukui nuclear power plant in Japan.

Incident 649

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
9 Feb 1991: Rupture of steam generator pipe causes release of radioactivity from Mihama nuclear power plant in Japan.

Incident 650

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
14 Feb 1991: A coolant leak at Maine Yankee nuclear power plant in Wiscasset, Maine requires the reactor to be shut down for repairs.

Incident 651

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
10 Mar 1991: Equipment malfunctions at Darlington nuclear power plant in Canada.

Incident 652

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
26 Mar 1991: There is a refueling accident at Wuergassen nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 653

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
10 Apr 1991: Human error causes manual shutdown of Paluel nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 654

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
12 Apr 1991: Fire causes manual shutdown of Olkiluoto nuclear power plant in Finland.

Incident 655

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
23 Apr 1991: Loss of offsite power causes technical failure at Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant in Vernon, Vermont.

Incident 656

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
5 May 1991: An equipment failure occurs at Kursk nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 657

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
24 Apr 1991: Due to a technical fault, an accident occurs at Belleville nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 658

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
1 Jun 1991: The core cooling system fails at Belleville nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 659

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
29 Jun 1991: Erroneous indication of reactor power level at Pickering nuclear power plant in Canada forces the plant to operate at reduced output.

Incident 660

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
9 Jul 1991: There is a flaw in the cooling system of Wuergassen nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 661

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
10 Jul 1991: Radiation leaks from Bilibino nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 662

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
17 Jul 1991: Sendai nuclear power plant in Japan is shut down due to control system failure.

Incident 663

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
18 Jul 1991: Steam leakage causes reactor shutdown at Paks nuclear power plant in Hungary.

Incident 664

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
29 Jul 1991: Nogent nuclear power plant in France is shut down by a leak in the primary coolant system.

Incident 665

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
2 Aug 1991: Human error causes a fire at Hinkley Point A nuclear power plant in England.

Incident 666

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
6 Aug 1991: A fire occurs at Kozloduy nuclear power plant in Bulgaria.

Incident 667

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
9 Aug 1991: The instrumentation and control system at Kalinin nuclear power plant in Russia malfunctions due to flooding.

Incident 668

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
12 Aug 1991: Equipment malfunctions at Rajasthan nuclear power plant in India.

Incident 669

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
16 Aug 1991: In tests of emergency shutdown system performance at Millstone nuclear power plant in Waterford, Connecticut, eight control rods exhibit slow insertion.

Incident 670

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
17 Aug 1991: Technical problems cause automatic shutdown at Sendai nuclear power plant in Japan.

Incident 671

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
23 Aug 1991: Workers at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre in Germany find that an entire nuclear fuel assembly has been secretly switched with a dummy Folgers assembly.

Incident 672

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
6 Sep 1991: Incident and steam leak during refueling at Barsebeck nuclear power plant in Sweden.

Incident 673

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
8 Sep 1991: Release of radioactive steam due to technical failure at Barsebeck nuclear power plant in Sweden.

Incident 674

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
14 Sep 1991: Leakage at Kozloduy nuclear power plant in Bulgaria.

Incident 675

Source(s):
Updated 12 Sep 2007
Selected Accidents Involving Nuclear Weapons 1950-1993
27 Sep 1991: During a test firing, a missile mis-fires on a newly constructed Typhoon class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine. Consequently, all Typhoon-class subs are modified to carry an improved missile.

Incident 676

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
9 Oct 1991: Technical failure at Yugno-Ukrainskaya nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

Incident 677

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
11 Oct 1991: Fire at Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

Incident 678

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
16 Oct 1991: Equipment malfunction at Oskarshamm nuclear power plant in Sweden.

Incident 679

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
18 Oct 1991: Technical failure at Zaporozhe nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

Incident 680

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 Oct 1991: Failure of offsite power at Smolensk nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 681

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
20 Oct 1991: Reactor at Tihange nuclear power plant in Belgium is shut down due to a technical fault after operating for only 8 days following refueling.

Incident 682

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
21 Oct 1991: Fire on board nuclear submarine HMS Sceptre at dock in Scotland.

Incident 683

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
21 Oct 1991: Violation of technical specifications for part of the reactor cooling system is discovered at Cattenom nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 684

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
25 Oct 1991: Failure of shutdown system during refueling at Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 685

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
26 Oct 1991: Incident during refueling at Alvin W. Vogtle nuclear power plant in Waynesboro, Georgia.

Incident 686

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
27 Oct 1991: Technical failure of shutdown system at Zaporozhe nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

Incident 687

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
29 Oct 1991: Technical failure causes automatic shutdown at Kalinin nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 688

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
18 Nov 1991: Reactor shutdown due to technical failure at Balakovo nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 689

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
23 Nov 1991: Leak of 190,000 liters of water from cooling system at Oconee nuclear power plant in Seneca, South Carolina causes shutdown of reactor.

Incident 690

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
25 Nov 1991: Failure of cooling system causes automatic reactor shutdown at Kursk nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 691

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
26 Nov 1991: Fire at Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan.

Incident 692

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
27 Nov 1991: Malfunction of automatic shutdown system at Bilibino nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 693

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
28 Nov 1991: Failure of control system causes reactor shutdown at Kursk nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 694

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
1 Dec 1991: Technical failure at Beloyarsk nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 695

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
6 Dec 1991: Failure of control system during refueling causes reactor shutdown at Smolensk nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 696

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
7 Dec 1991: Failure of cooling system at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 697

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
10 Dec 1991: Failure of turbo-generator causes reactor shutdown at Balakovo nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 698

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
11 Dec 1991: Human error causes failure of automatic reactor shutdown equipment at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 699

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
14 Dec 1991: Technical failure causes automatic shutdown at Balakovo nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 700

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
15 Dec 1991: Technical failure at Kalinin nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 701

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
16 Dec 1991: Technical failure at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 702

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
21 Dec 1991: Radiation leakage at Kolskaya nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 703

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
24 Dec 1991: Reactor shutdown due to technical failure at Kalinin nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 704

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
27 Dec 1991: Automatic shutdown at Balakovo nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 705

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
1 Jan 1992: Four tons of heavy water spill at Rajasthan nuclear power plant in India.

Incident 706

Source(s): First cold fusion bomb?
Re: CNF-related explosion at SRI
(long transcript of a discussion -- search on the title or on "1992.01.04 / A Boulanger /")
DOE Research Facilities (PDF)
3 Jan 1992:

An experimental chemical cell being used to investigate the phenomenon known as cold fusion explodes at a laboratory in Menlo Park, California, killing Andrew Riley, a British electrochemist.

Cold fusion was so named because at the time it seemed possible that nuclear fusion reactions might be occurring at room temperature in the cells. Because of this, there was a considerable stir over the Menlo Park explosion. Three other cells that Riley and his colleagues had used were buried as a precaution. Subsequent investigation found that it was a purely chemical explosion, with no nuclear processes involved.

While research on cold fusion continues, no trace of nuclear radiation has ever been demonstrated, and no useful energy output has been achieved.

Incident 707

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
17 Jan 1992: Technical failure at Kruemmel nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 708

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 Jan 1992: Radioactivity leaks, causing shutdown at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 709

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
22 Jan 1992: Technical failure in shutdown system at Balakovo nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 710

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
27 Jan 1992: Leak causes shutdown at Darlington nuclear power plant in Canada.

Incident 711

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
3 Feb 1992: Failure of cooling pumps at Kozloduy nuclear power plant in Bulgaria.

Incident 712

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
7 Feb 1992: Moisture from pipe leak scrams reactor at Barsebeck nuclear power plant in Sweden.

Incident 713

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
10 Feb 1992: Technical failure in pump system at Zaporozhe nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

Incident 714

Source(s):
Updated 12 Sep 2007
USS Baton Rouge (SSN-689) (Wikipedia)
Project 945 Sierra class Attack Submarine (Nuclear Powered)
11 Feb 1992: The Los Angeles class nuclear-powered attack submarine Baton Rouge (SSN-689) collides with the Russian Barracuda, a Sierra class nuclear-powered attack submarine. Although able to return to base under her own power, the Barracuda is damaged so severely that she is never restored to service.

Incident 715

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
28 Feb 1992: Software failure in the control computer at Embalse nuclear power plant in Argentina.

Incident 716

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
3 Mar 1992: Technical failure at Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 717

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
9 Mar 1992: Fire at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 718

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
24 Mar 1992: Iodine-137 escapes from the Sosnovy Bor nuclear power plant near St. Petersburg, Russia. The plant is shut down.

Incident 719

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
25 Mar 1992: Technical failure at Sosnovy Bor nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 720

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
29 Mar 1992: Failure of shutdown system at Ignalina nuclear power plant in Lithuania.

Incident 721

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
31 Mar 1992: Automatic shutdown due to failure of pump system at Kalinin nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 722

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
7 Apr 1992: Failure of automatic shutdown system at Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 723

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
16 Apr 1992: Technical failure of reactor shutdown system at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 724

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
18 Apr 1992: Technical failure during refueling at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 725

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
30 Apr 1992: Breakdown of cooling system at Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 726

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
1 May 1992: Technical failure at Ignalina nuclear power plant in Lithuania.

Incident 727

Source(s): Safety of Trident Submarines
Greenpeace: Nuclear submarine endangers Hamburg
1 May 1992: Berthed at its home port of Devonport, the HMS Turbulent suffers a fire. A short circuit occurs during maintenance on an electrical switchboard. The resulting blaze burns for five hours in the compartment adjoining the reactor room. Twenty-three sailors are sent to hospital because of smoke inhalation. The incident might have been much worse had the Mechanical Engineering Articifer (MEA) of the Watch not been able to shut down the ship's reactor. Lacking a respirator mask, he might have been unable to do this. But Petty Officer Christian Checkley removes his mask and hands it to the MEA — an act for which Checkley receives the Queen's Commendation for bravery.

Incident 728

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
7 May 1992: Failure of emergency system at Smolensk nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 729

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
9 May 1992: Technical failure of cooling system at Edwin I. Hatch nuclear power plant in Baxley, Georgia.

Incident 730

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
13 May 1992: Pipe leak releases 12 curies of radioactivity from Tarapur nuclear power plant in India.

Incident 731

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
16 May 1992: Reactor shutdown at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 732

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 May 1992: Technical failure at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 733

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
31 May 1992: Engineering accident at Fort Calhoun nuclear power plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska.

Incident 734

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
2 Jun 1992: Total failure of centralized control system at Smolensk nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 735

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
8 Jun 1992: Failure of cooling system at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 736

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
12 Jun 1992: Container of cesium-137 stolen from Krasnoyarsk nuclear complex in Russia.

Incident 737

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
15 Jun 1992: Technical failure at Sizewell nuclear power plant in England.

Incident 738

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
17 Jun 1992: Fire at Duane Arnold nuclear power plant in Palo, Iowa.

Incident 739

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
19 Jun 1992: Leak in pipe conducting sea water to cooling system at Sosnovy Bor nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 740

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
24 Jun 1992: Technical failure of control system at Sosnovy Bor nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 741

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
14 Jul 1992: Failure of cooling system causes shutdown at Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 742

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
20 Jul 1992: Radiation leak due to cooling system breakdown at Ignalina nuclear power plant in Lithuania.

Incident 743

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
22 Jul 1992: Two workers contaminated at Dampierre nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 744

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
26 Jul 1992: Temperature rise in storage pool at Gravelines nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 745

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
27 Jul 1992: Human error causes failure of valve in primary coolant loop at Barsebeck nuclear power plant in Sweden.

Incident 746

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
15 Aug 1992: Accidental oscillation of research reactor core at Hanford works in Washington, USA.

Incident 747

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
22 Aug 1992: Failure of shutdown system at Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 748

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
28 Aug 1992: Fire in electro-generator at Saint Alban nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 749

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
10 Sep 1992: Technical failure at Fessenheim nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 750

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
12 Sep 1992: Radioactive water leak at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 751

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
20 Sep 1992: Technical fault causing water leakage in the reactor coolant system detected at Dampierre nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 752

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
1 Nov 1992: Cracks in cooling system equipment at Brunsbuttel nuclear power plant in Germany.

Incident 753

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
Nov 1992: Four workers overexposed in PRC in accident similar to Shanghai 1990.

Incident 754

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
Nov 1992: Patient in San Antonio, Texas injured by iodine-131 overdose.

Incident 755

Source(s): Major Nuclear Power Plant Accidents
Nov 1992: Three workers are severely exposed when they enter a nuclear accelerator in Forbach, France without proper protection. Executives of the facility are jailed in 1993 for laxity in safety procedures.

Incident 756

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
16 Nov 1992:

An 82-year-old woman is being treated for intestinal cancer at a clinic in Indiana, Pennsylvania. The treatment consists of inserting five wires, each with a "seed" of iridium-192, into her colon. When the wires are being retracted, one breaks, leaving the seed inside the woman. Since the console indicator shows the wires have been safely retracted, the physician and staff ignore a radiation alarm. They do not do a radiation survey with a portable monitor to be sure.

The patient is taken back to her nursing home. The seed falls out on the fourth day and is disposed of in a medical biohazards bag which remains on site for six more days. Workers and visitors are exposed for a total of ten days. When a medical waste disposal truck arrives to carry off the waste, the driver fails to survey the items with a portable radiation meter as per company policy. The source is finally discovered at an incineration facility in Warren, Ohio when radiation alarms indicate contamination.

The staff of the incinerator locate and isolate the bag after an arduous search. Records allow it to be traced back to the nursing home. An NRC Incident Investigation team finds that the woman died five days after her treatment; the Indiana County Coroner's report confirms that she died of acute radiation sickness. The NRC team finds that over 90 people were exposed, with some of the staff receiving significant doses. Announcements in local newspapers bring in some of the visitors who are at risk.

Incident 757

Source(s): Radioactive Source Horror Stories
17 Nov 1992: At a 15-million-electron-volt linear accelerator facility in Hanoi, Viet Nam, the facility director enters the irradiation room without the operator's knowledge and unwittingly exposes his hands to the beam. His hands are seriously injured and one has to be amputated.

Incident 758

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
China: 3 die after Co-60 exposure
19 Nov 1992: A radiation facility in the Xinzhou District of Shanxi Province, China loses a 10-Curie cobalt-60 source. The lost source is found by a man named Zhang Youchang, who takes it home. He, his brother and his father die between 3 and 10 December due to radiation exposure. More than 90 other people who might have been exposed to the source are examined. According to a spokesman for the Department of Nuclear Power in China, only five of them have significant exposures and those five "have received appropriate medical treatment."

Incident 759

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
24 Nov 1992:

The Sequoyah Fuels Corporation plant in Gore, Oklahoma is closed after multiple citations by the government over a period of years for violations of nuclear safety and environmental rules. One of two privately owned American manufacturers of armor-piercing shells and reactor fuel rods, the plant had been shut down the week before by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission when an accidental release of toxic gas caused 34 people to seek medical treatment.

The plant had also been shut down the year before when high concentrations of uranium were detected in water in a nearby construction pit. A government investigation revealed that the company had known for years that uranium was leaking into groundwater at levels 35,000 times higher than federal law allows. Carol Couch, the plant's environmental manager, was cited for obstructing the investigation and for knowingly giving federal agents false information.

Note: See also the entry for 6 January 1986.

Incident 760

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
25 Dec 1992: Radioactive water leaks at Beloyarsk nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 761

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1993: In Russia, Vladimir Kaplun is killed over several weeks by planted radioactives.

Incident 762

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
2 Jan 1993: A release of radioactive steam occurs at Kozloduy nuclear power plant in Bulgaria.

Incident 763

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
9 Jan 1993: Leaking fuel rods release radioactivity at Perry nuclear power plant in North Perry, Ohio.

Incident 764

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
13 Jan 1993: Fire at Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

Incident 765

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
14 Jan 1993: Malfunction of water-level control equipment in reactor coolant system at Chinon nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 766

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
20 Jan 1993: Technical failure at Paluel nuclear power plant in France causes subcooling accident.

Incident 767

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
2 Feb 1993: Breakdown of cooling system for two hours at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 768

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
15 Feb 1993: 18,000 liters of heavy water spill at the Darlington nuclear power plant in Canada.

Incident 769

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
22 Feb 1993: High pressure steam accident kills one worker and injures two others at Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan.

Incident 770

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
1 Mar 1993: "Hundreds of litres of contaminated water gush from a leaking steam generator tube" at Palo Verde nuclear power plant in Wintersburg, Arizona.

Incident 771

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
20 Mar 1993: The USS Grayling (SSN-646) collides with the Novomoskovsk, a Russian Delta-III class submarine (designation K-407), in the Barents Sea 105 nautical miles north of the Kola Peninsula.

Incident 772

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
21 Mar 1993: Workers are exposed to high levels of radiation during three accidents at Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan.

Incident 773

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
6 Apr 1993: Explosion at the Tomsk-7 nuclear complex in Russia.

Incident 774

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
23 Apr 1993: Fire in the ventilation system at Zaporozhne nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

Incident 775

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
May 1993: Turbine fire at Rajasthan nuclear power plant in India; emergency cooling prevents radiation release.

Incident 776

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
22 May 1993: A cesium-137 source is found taped under the center drawer of a doctor's desk at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Memphis, Tennessee.

Incident 777

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
27 May 1993: Breakdown of cooling system leads to reactor shutdown at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 778

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
28 May 1993: The NRC warns 34 nuclear power plant operators of faulty instrumentation in GE reactors.

Incident 779

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
12 Jul 1993: Failure of control system at Susquehanna nuclear power plant in Berwick, Pennsylvania.

Incident 780

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
31 Jul 1993: Refueling machine malfunctions at Wylfa nuclear power plant in England.

Incident 781

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
5 Aug 1993: Leak causes shutdown at Millstone nuclear power plant in Waterford, Connecticut.

Incident 782

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
1 Sep 1993: Fire at Balakovo nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 783

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
15 Sep 1993: Accident during refueling at Paks nuclear power plant in Hungary.

Incident 784

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
10 Oct 1993: Approximately one tonne of sodium leaks from the fast breeder reactor at Beloyarsk nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 785

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
22 Oct 1993: Instrumentation and control failure at Saint Alban nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 786

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
9 Nov 1993: Human error causes technical failure at Cruas nuclear power plant in France.

Incident 787

Source(s): Radioactive Source Horror Stories
1994: Unknown to a junk dealer in Mansfield, Ohio, the 2,200 pounds of scrap metal he has bought from the government contain radioactive magnesium from a Minuteman missile. He discovers this and the government spends $80,000 on cleanup of his 27-acre plot. But he later sues the government, claiming his land is still too contaminated to sell. The government contends what little contamination remains is no health threat. On 26 September 2003, district court finds for the government.

Incident 788

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1994: Unshielded radiography source in Texas City, Texas burns individual's hand.

Incident 789

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
4 Feb 1994: Radiation leak at Mayak reprocessing plant in Russia.

Incident 790

Source(s): A Short Superphenix Chronology
Feb 1994: French Prime Minister downgrades Superphenix to research reactor status, making it the only 1.2-Gigawatt research reactor on the planet.

Incident 791

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
2 Mar 1994: Breakdown of cooling system at Kola nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 792

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
16 Mar 1994: Cable fire at Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant in Ukraine.

Incident 793

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
21 Mar 1994: Release of radiation at Mayak reprocessing plant in Russia.

Incident 794

Source(s):
Updated 12 Sep 2007
Émeraude (S 604) (Wikipedia)
Nuclear submarines
30 Mar 1994:

The French nuclear submarine Émeraude (S-604) is operating submerged in the Mediterranean. The non-radioactive secondary steam loop in the reactor room develops a serious leak. The vessel's commander and a number of senior members of the crew investigate the leak. Unfortunately, they are not wearing protective clothing. When a steam pipe bursts, they are killed instantly.

Despite the damage and the loss of ten men, the Émeraude is recovered and returns to service. No details on its repair have been made public.

Incident 795

Source(s): U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
31 Mar 1994: Fire at a nuclear research facility on Long Island, New York results in the contamination of three firefighters, three reactor operators, and one technician. Measurable amounts of radioactive substances escape into the immediate environment.

Incident 796

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
4 Apr 1994: Cooling system leak causes shutdown at Daya Bay nuclear power plant in China.

Incident 797

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
27 Apr 1994: Cracks are found in the core containment vessel at Quad Cities nuclear power plant in Cordova, Illinois.

Incident 798

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
28 Apr 1994: X-ray technician in Tokyo, Japan injured when disassembling live machine.

Incident 799

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
25 May 1994: Technical failure at Daya Bay nuclear power plant in China.

Incident 800

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
6 Jun 1994: Fire at Beloyarsk nuclear power plant in Russia.

Incident 801

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
2 Jul 1994: Leak at Daya Bay nuclear power plant in China.

Incident 802

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
7 Jul 1994: Radioactive contamination at Mayak reprocessing plant in Russia.

Incident 803

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
8 Jul 1994: A gang is arrested for theft of 5kg of uranium from a research facility near Chelyabinsk in Russia.

Incident 804

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
8 Aug 1994: Someone places a small quantity of strontium-90 into the rear pants pocket of a female worker at Quad Cities nuclear power plant in Cordova, Illinois.

Incident 805

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
10 Aug 1994: Authorities confiscate some 300g of weapons-grade plutonium packed in metal tubes inside a lead container from a passenger arriving in Germany on a flight from Russia. This is the largest ever seizure of illegal plutonium.

Incident 806

Source(s): Scandalous Behavior in the Nuclear World
21 Oct 1994:

Three brothers break into the Tammiku repository of nuclear wastes, some 20km from Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. Their intent is to steal and sell some metal. During this caper, someone dislodges a radiation source from its shielding block. It is a small metal cylinder, about 1.5cm in diameter and 3cm long. One of the brothers puts it in the pocket of his jacket. He comes home the next morning to the village of Kiisa and, not feeling well, goes to bed. He is hospitalized on 25 October and dies on 2 November. The diagnosis is kidney failure. Apparently he has told no one about his night-time adventure or the "prize" he obtained.

The next victim is his stepson, who finds the cylinder in the jacket pocket and places in in a drawer containing tools in the kitchen. The 13-year-old boy goes to hospital on 17 November with severe burns on his hands. Only then is radiation recognized as the cause. The police are notified, and a team from the Rescue Board finds the source in the kitchen drawer on 18 November, measuring a dose rate of 20 R/h from it. The source is later identified as cesium-137.

Incident 807

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
15 Nov 1994: The government orders a shutdown of Ignalina nuclear power plant in Lithuania due to a terrorist threat.

Incident 808

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
10 Dec 1994: Loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at Pickering nuclear power plant in Canada.

Incident 809

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1995: Worker in France injures hand by handling 27-Curie Ir-192 source.

Incident 810

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1995: Lost cesium-137 source in France is handled by individual not an employee.

Incident 811

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1995: Patient in Tyler, Texas is injured by iodine-131 overdose.

Incident 812

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
13 Feb 1995: Somali officials assert that the U.S. government has stolen "crude" uranium from Somalia.

Incident 813

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
Mar 1995: Radioactive iodine is found in diapers at a garbage dump in Indianapolis, Indiana.

Incident 814

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
27 Mar 1995: Radioactive water leak from primary loop shuts down reactor at Ringhalls nuclear power plant in Sweden.

Incident 815

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
29 Mar 1995: A package of radioactive thallium falls out of a Federal Express van in Michigan. The package is struck by a car, releasing its contents.

Incident 816

Source(s): The Radioactive Boy Scout
Great Moments in Science
26 Jun 1995:

At the age of ten, David Hahn was given a copy of The Golden Book of Chemistry Experiments. This sparked a remarkable episode. By age 12, he had mastered university-level chemistry texts; when he was 14, he made nitroglycerin. His experiments were banished from the bedroom, which he had blown up, to the basement. Soon his activities got him banished from that laboratory too. He set up in the shed behind his mother's house in Commerce Township, Michigan. (His father had remarried.)

In the shed, he graduated from chemistry to atomic physics. He wrote to any agency that had something to do with nuclear power, using a variety of subterfuges to obtain samples and know-how. The NRC was especially helpful. Bulk purchases of smoke detectors and Coleman lanterns gave him tiny pieces of americium and thorium, which he would isolate and weld together with a blowtorch. He collected old clocks and scraped off the paint, concentrating and processing it to purify the radium. The radium went into a lead block with a pinhole, forming a directed source of alpha particles. David aimed these at a stolen strip of beryllium foil, and achieved a primitive neutron gun. The neutron flux let him transmute elements. He began working on making thorium-232 into uranium-233, letting his transmutor run while he was in school or pretending to be a normal teen. His makeshift breeder reactor was well on the way to contaminating the neighborhood; he was able to measure the radiation from five houses away, and it was growing stronger day by day. Fortunately for the neighbors (and for David himself), the authorities stumbled onto his game about this time. The process took almost a year, between bureaucratic procedures and David being uncooperative. But ultimately (on the date given here) they confiscated his materials, dismantled the shed, and shipped everything to a nuclear waste dump. Everything, that is, but the hottest stuff, including the makeshift breeder. His mother had gotten scared and tossed those items in the garbage.

Incident 817

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
Summer 1995: The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) investigates incidents of deliberate contamination at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Resolution TBS, AFAIK.

Incident 818

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
1995: A worker at a nuclear plant near Chicago, Illinois puts a radioactive source into the coat pocket of a female co-worker.

Incident 819

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
22 Sep 1995: Armed Russian sailors force Kola nuclear power plant to restore electricity to the Murmansk submarine base, averting possible reactor meltdowns after independent cooling systems in several submarine reactors fail to start. Under a law that took effect in Russia in July, power stations are allowed to cut off service to customers who do not make payments.

Incident 820

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
6 Nov 1995: Polish border guards seize six containers filled with a radioactive substance thought to be uranium.

Incident 821

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
12 Nov 1995: Reactor shutdown at Hartlepool nuclear power plant in England due to leakage of coolant gas.

Incident 822

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
21 Nov 1995: The German High Court rules that the license for Mülheim-Kärlich nuclear powere plant was issued illegally, due to insufficient consideration of earthquake hazards.

Incident 823

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
5 Dec 1995: Accidental automatic shutdown at Kozloduy nuclear power plant in Bulgaria.

Incident 824

Source(s): Leak at Japanese reactor "very serious"
Widow sues Monju reactor operator
Japan approves nuclear reactor
8 Dec 1995:

Two to three tonnes of sodium leak from the primary coolant loop of the Monju experimental fast breeder reactor at Tsuruga, Japan, starting a fire and filling the building with toxic smoke. The reactor, which began operating in August, was running at 40% capacity when the accident occurred. Yasumasa Togo, head of the Nuclear Safety Commission, describes the accident as "very serious".

Ten days after the accident, the state-owned Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, which operates Monju, admits withholding evidence to make the damage seem less extensive than it was. The government promises that Monju will not be restarted until confidence among local residents is restored. A ten-year court battle culminates on 30 May 2005 with approval to restart Monju.

Incident 825

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
1995: A plot to contaminate a man is foiled, and the source is recovered.

Incident 826

Source(s): Hiroshima Peace Site (English pages): General Nuclear-Related Damage
1 Jan 1996: "Confirmation of radiation leakage from the Muraroa Atoll in the South Pacific where France has conducted its nuclear tests."

Incident 827

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
31 Jan 1996: Human error and technical failure cause radiation leakage at Dimitrovgrad nuclear research center in Russia.

Incident 828

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
Scoll down to "Texas Theft Incident Irradiates Many"
27 Feb 1996:

A Houston, Texas radiography company is in bankruptcy. Its three cameras have been impounded in place by the Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control (BRC). The Ir-192 in the smallest camera has decayed to minimal activity. The Cobalt-60 cameras, one large (1665 lbs), and one small (631 lbs), contain 35.3 Curie and 8.6 Curie of Co-60 respectively.

On 27 February 1996, all three cameras are stolen. The cameras are stripped of their caution labels and sold to a scrap metal dealer. A complicated web of deceptive transactions ensues, in which the cameras are sold and re-sold, broken up, discovered to be radioactive, and returned to the original dealer. There, on 1 March 1996, the unshielded 35.3-Curie cobalt-60 source falls to the ground and gets kicked under a corner of the main office.

The original dealer again sells the two large cameras, one with the source inside, to different dealers, without mentioning their radioactivity. Six dealers are involved in this incident; no one of them ever notifies the BRC that they possess a radioactive source.

The Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission, working at the site of the bankrupt company, notifies the BRC that the door from the building where the devices were stored was removed. Upon investigation, BRC determines that the three devices are missing. On 4 March 1996, the BRC issues a news release that is highly publicized by the local media. This helps the BRC to recover the devices. On 5 March 1996, BRC Health Physicists locate the unshielded source. The scrap yard is evacuated and secured; the source is recovered and secured later that evening. Eleven adults and two children are exposed to high levels of radiation at the scrap yard and one adult from dealer B is exposed when he transports and handles the camera and source. Five Houston Police Officers are exposed to low radiation levels when they conduct interviews at dealer A.

Incident 829

Source(s): Greenpeace Calendar of Nuclear Accidents (updated 21 March 1996)
28 Feb 1996: Explosion during a welding procedure at Point Beach nuclear power plant in Two Rivers, Wisconsin.

Incident 830

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
31 May 1996: Radioactive cesium-137 is found in the trunk of a crushed car in a Cincinnati, Ohio scrapyard.

Incident 831

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
5 Jun 1996: A Slovak engineer is arrested on suspicion of smuggling 2.77kg of radioactive uranium into Germany.

Incident 832

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
11 Jun 1996: Two Long Island, New York men are arrested for plotting to kill three local officials by planting radium-226 in their cars and food.

Incident 833

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
18 Jul 1996: A cleanup crew hired to dispose of chemicals at a high school discovers a radioactive source where none were reported in the inventory.

Incident 834

Source(s): Radioactive Source Horror Stories
24 Jul 1996: A worker at the Combined Cycle Fossil Power Plant in Gilan, Iran is moving insulation materials for the lagging of boilers and pipes in the plant. He notices a shiny pencil-sized piece of metal on the side of the trench and puts it in the loose pocket of his overall on the right side above his chest. The metal object is a 'pigtail' of a radiograph with an iridium-192 source. The man suffers bone marrow depression and an unusually extended local radiation injury. After plastic surgery at the Curie Institute in Paris, the patient's general condition is satisfactory, though his injuries are debilitating.

Incident 835

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
25 Jul 1996: An accident at Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant in Ukraine fatally burns an employee and releases radiation inside the station.

Incident 836

Source(s): Radioactive Source Horror Stories
Aug 1996: A cobalt-60 source is replaced at the San Juan de Diós hospital in San José, Costa Rica. When the new source is calibrated, an error is made in calculating the dose rate. The result is that 115 patients receive exposures greater than prescribed. The problem is discovered in late September, and investigation confirms that actual exposures are 50% to 60% greater than calculated. By July 1997, 42 of the patients have died.

Incident 837

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
18 Aug 1996: Officials shut down the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant in Wiscasset, Maine after discovering that 15 feet of wire are missing from a circuit used to automatically activate a pump in the emergency core cooling system.

Incident 838

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
29 Aug 1996: Monitor, a magazine of German television, reports that Siemens has made serious mistakes during construction of the Kruemmel nuclear power plant in Germany. Parts of the pressurized-water containment system, according to the magazine, were bent to fit and welded under tension.

Incident 839

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
11 Sep 1996: Oil leakage cause a shutdown at Ignalina nuclear power plant in Lithuania.

Incident 840

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
26 Oct 1996: Five college-age males are videotaped stealing the radioactive innards of a tritium-filled glow-in-the-dark exit sign at Arizona State University.

Incident 841

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
27 Oct 1996:

The husband of a former Babcock & Wilcox employee returns a floor scrubber, contaminated by more than 1,000 times the radiation levels that the NRC considers safe for public exposure, to the company's plant in Apollo, Pennsylvania. The employee walked off the job three years before, taking the floor scrubber with her.

The scrubber has 1.2 grams of radioactive residue on it. Testing finds approximately 100 square centimeters of fixed alpha contamination and 100 square centimeters of fixed beta contamination. Upon its return, Babcock & Wilcox notifies the NRC of the incident.

NRC spokesman Neil Sheehan says that Babcock and Wilcox has contacted the former employee to determine if and where the scrubber was used during the last three years and to make sure no radioactive material remains in the public domain. Sheehan said there is no information yet of any public contamination. He said the employee's reason for taking the item is unknown, it is too early to determine whether she will face criminal penalties, or whether the NRC would seek criminal or civil penalties against the company.

Incident 842

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
31 Oct 1996: Explosion at Tihange nuclear power plant in Belgium.

Incident 843

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
11 Nov 1996: A "media report" reveals that several Russian government ministries are aware that large quantities of radioactive material have disappeared from sites in Chechnya.

Incident 844

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
13 Nov 1996: The Swedish Atomic Forum reports that a reactor at Oskarshamm nuclear power plant in Sweden operated for a week with its emergency core cooling system inactivated.

Incident 845

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
15 Nov 1996: A U.S. crew in Lynchburg, Virginia is unable to account for a Russian-made fuel assembly with 126 fuel rods containing 2% enriched uranium.

Incident 846

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
11 Dec 1996: Purolator Courier reports losing "a huge source-term" of radioactive iridium-192 during shipping.

Incident 847

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
11 Dec 1996: A hospital near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania reports a plutonium-fueled pacemaker missing.

Incident 848

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
12 Dec 1996: Radioactive leak at Maine Yankee nuclear power plant in Wiscasset, Maine.

Incident 849

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
16 Dec 1996: For the third time in two months, a hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota receives a radioactively contaminated package from the same corporation.

Incident 850

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
18 Dec 1996: A Federal express van in Massachusetts drops a package of radioactive thallium. A car runs over the package, releasing its contents.

Incident 851

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1997: Unshielded Co-60 source in Republic of Georgia fatally injures one individual.

Incident 852

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
11 Jan 1997: Oil spilled from a Russian tanker threatens the safety of 15 reactors at Wasaka Bay in Japan. The viscous crude oil could clog up the pipes on which the reactors depend for cooling.

Incident 853

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
15 Jan 1997: A train carrying nuclear fuel casks derails at Kruemmel nuclear power plant in Germany during a track change.

Incident 854

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
27 Jan 1997:

A shipment of used stainless steel turbine diaphragms is being transported from the Monticello nuclear power plant located near Minneapolis, MN, to Alleron in Koppel, Pennsylvania. The shipment is in two 20-foot-long "c-vans", both loaded on a railroad car. At 1730 EST, the railroad car is in the Conrail yard at Allentown, PA when someone there notices that one of the c-van doors is open to a width of three feet.

This information travels through the railroad's hierarchy. At 19:25 EST, Conrail in Mt. Laurel, New Jersey notifies the Pennsylvania department of environmental protection in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, of a hazardous materials transportation event involving an open door on a shipping container. Each contains approximately 40,000 pounds of diaphragms with low level surface contamination (class-7 2913-placard material).

The rail car is isolated. Conrail sends a hazardous materials representative to ensure that the load will be adequately secured prior to any further shipment. Pennsylvania's Department of Environmental Protection notifies the state's Emergency Management Agency and also sends a representative to the site. Monticello dispatches a radiation protection supervisor to the rail yard and requests Limerick (located near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) to send a health physics representative to help in assessing the problem. Monticello is the point of contact with the NRC. It soon informs them that the shipment is intact and not a danger to the public. Conrail's computer records are cleaned up and the rail car is forwarded to its proper destination.

Incident 855

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
29 Jan 1997: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission extends its list of nuclear power plants in need of urgent safety measures. The five new entries to the list are: Crystal River in Red Level, Florida; LaSalle County in Seneca, Illinois; Maine Yankee in Wiscasset, Maine; Salem in Salem, New Jersey; and Zion in Zion, Illinois.

Incident 856

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
3 Feb 1997: A train carrying three casks with about 180 tons of high-level radioactive waste derails near Apach, France, not far from the Franco-German border.

Incident 857

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
18 Feb 1997:

The North Carolina Division of Radiation Control is notified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission that a store in Fayetteville, North Carolina sells tritium lighting devices. Further investigation by the NC Division of Radiation Control discloses that an army surplus store is selling tritium lighting devices (torches, personnel illuminators, and map readers) to military personnel as instructed wrongfully by another company which has an NRC license.

On 1/05/89, that company distributed 30 devices (40 sources) and on 05/07/91 they distributed another 24 devices (24 sources). The two shipments totaled 64 sources of tritium measuring 136.9 curies. The store had only 22 sources remaining in stock (46.65 curies of tritium) and they have been shipped back to the licensee. The other 42 sources (90.35 curies) were sold without any records being made of the sale. The state has not yet determined what type of action it will take.

Incident 858

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
12 Mar 1997: Explosion and fire at Tokai-Mura nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan expose 35 workers to moderate doses of radiation. After attempting to cover up the accident, the Japanese Science and Technology Agency officially declares it Japan's worst.

Incident 859

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
17 Mar 1997: A uranium fuel plant, also at Tokai-Mura, shuts down on a false criticality alarm.

Incident 860

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
25 Mar 1997: Near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 33,000 shovel blades are made from steel containing radioactive thorium.

Incident 861

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
27 Mar 1997: A truck driver loses a contaminated valve he is hauling near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and is contaminated himself in retrieving it.

Incident 862

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
8 Apr 1997: Greenpeace reports that radiation levels on the beach close to the discharge pipe for La Hague reprocessing plant in France are as much as 3,900 times higher than background levels.

Incident 863

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
14 Apr 1997: Radioactive tritium is released after an incident at Fugen nuclear power plant in Japan.

Incident 864

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
22 Apr 1997: The U.S. Army reports losing 2,184 chemical agent detectors containing radioactive sources in Europe since 1989.

Incident 865

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
2 May 1997: Due to a defective radiation monitor, Royal Dutch Airlines (KLM) accidentally transports a package of radioactive medical equipment emitting radiation levels far higher than those permitted on board a passenger flight.

Incident 866

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
10 May 1997:

Three New Jersey teenagers take a "glow-in-the-dark" exit sign containing 20 Curies of tritium from a demolition site. They break open the tubes of tritium while eating sunflower seeds, thereby ingesting some of the gaseous tritium.

Note: The mention here of sunflower seeds puzzles me. I'd expect it for a powder or liquid. But since tritium is a gas, it does not need to be ingested to get into the body. Anyone who opens a container of tritium without protection is likely to breathe some of it. The only question is how long it remains in the body, and it's not clear that tritium ingested stays around longer than tritium inhaled.

Incident 867

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
May 1997:

A 400-gallon tank holding about 3 gallons of toxic chemicals explodes at the Hanford Works in Richland, Washington. The blast causes the release of 20,000-30,000 gallons of water from a ruptured fire sprinkler main. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., operator of the site for the Department of Energy, is cited for violations of DOE rules and fined $140,625. Violations cited include the contractor's failure to assure that breathing devices operate properly (though they do) and failure to conduct proper radiological surveys of workers involved (the workers are not contaminated) and failure to assure adherence to criticality safety procedures (although the area flooded contained no fissile materials).

Note: One source paints this as a radiological release; but it doesn't seem to be that. Hanford has enough true releases; there's no point in false accusations.

Incident 868

Source(s): LA-13638: A Review of Criticality Accidents, 2000 Revision (PDF, 3.8 MB)
15 May 1997:

Building 17 at the Novosibirsk Chemical Concentration Plant is devoted to manufacture of highly enriched uranium fuel rods. The accident occurs during a chemical etching process that removes microscopic defects in the uranium surface prior to its cladding by aluminum. Etching involves immersion of the rods into sodium hydroxide, a water wash, and finally nitric acid. The process leaches tiny quantities of uranium from the rods, some in the form of oxide, which precipitates in the alkali vessel, and some in solution in the nitric acid. Once a batch of rods is etched, the three solutions (and most of any precipitate present) are collected in a common vessel. From there, the mixture is pumped to tanks for eventual recovery of the uranium.

In 1996, a 5.5kg deposit of uranium dioxide was found on inspection of the collection vessel. Analysis showed this to be over ten years in formation, since it contained 36%-enriched uranium, and the transition from that grade to 90% enriched occurred in 1986. Despite this discovery, no other part of the apparatus is checked for uranium accumulations. In addition, the geometry of the vessels was not approved for use with the higher enrichment level.

Building 17 is promptly evacuated when the criticality alarm sounds at 1055 hours on Thursday, 15 May 1997. Twenty-five minutes later, emergency response personnel measure dose rates of 10 R/h at half a meter from the holding tanks on the ground floor. They dissolve 20kg of boric acid in water and introduce it into the tanks to absorb neutrons. Despite this, five more excursions occur, at varying intervals, into the early morning hours of 16 May. Finally, at 1400 on 16 May, a concentrated solution of lithium chloride is added after a sixth excursion when radiation levels are lower. This permanently suppresses the reaction. Equipment is undamaged. Exposures for the closest 20 people do not exceed 0.4 rem.

Analysis of the solutions indicates a total mass of 7.8kg, too low by a factor of 13 for criticality in these particular vessels. However, it is soon found that the tanks contain a slurry which, when filtered, loses 95% of the total uranium as precipitate. The bottoms of both tanks contain a crust of precipitate, and both are deformed for unknown reasons. The deformation reduces the criticality safety margin. The precipitate is dissolved and reclaimed, both tanks are replaced, and a regular inspection for precipitate accumulation and tank deformation is begun.

Incident 869

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
23 May 1997: In the German city of Hettstadt, a bar filled with radioactive cesium is found at a copper metal recycling company.

Incident 870

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
28 May 1997: Protective lead aprons for nuclear medicine workers are made from radioactive lead supplied by a company in Littlestown, Pennsylvania.

Incident 871

Source(s): LA-13638: A Review of Criticality Accidents, 2000 Revision (PDF, 3.8 MB)
17 Jun 1997:

At the Sarov (Arzamas-16) facility, an experimental apparatus is being hand-constructed on a vertical-movement platform. This platform is part of a system known as FKBN-2M in which the lower portion can be raised or lowered and the upper portion moved horizontally. Like all such current setups, this one is equpped with a gravity-driven fast scram system to drop the lower platform out of the reactivity zone if neutron flux exceeds a preset value. The construction is being done by an experimenter working alone and without having completed the proper paperwork — both violations of safety procedures.

Working from notes and logbooks, he is attempting to duplicate an experiment first performed in 1972. This consists of several concentric hemispherical shells of material containing 90%-enriched uranium, with an outer reflector of copper. However, he makes two mistakes. The first is recording a diameter of 265mm for the reflector; the correct value is 205mm. This apparently leads him to use too many fuel shells. His second mistake comes when he is mounting the other hemisphere of the reflector onto the upper platform. It slips from his hands and falls onto the lower portion of the assembly. Instantly there is the blue flash, and the criticality alarm sounds. The lower platform scrams, but this is no help since the critical configuration remains intact upon it.

The experimenter leaves the room, closes the shielded door behind him, and reports to the engineer and health physicist who are on duty in the control room. He then remains to describe his notes to the facility chief, who arrives shortly thereafter. He is flown to Moscow for treatment the same day, but this is unavailing since he has absorbed 4,500 rad from neutrons and 350 rad from gamma rays. He dies on 20 June.

Analysis shows the initial spike of radiation is followed by another excursion lasting 3 to 5 minutes, and by a series of highly damped oscillations at roughly 40-minute intervals. The reaction then reaches equilibrium. Conditions preclude its termination for seven days. Finally, on 24 June, a vacuum gripper is used to remove most of the assembly from the stand, leaving only the lower copper hemishell in place. Later the apparatus is further disassembled, all by remote control. Total energy yield of the accident is equivalent to that from 10 19 fissions. Minimal equipment damage occurs, no one else is exposed, and the experiment room is not contaminated. Safety upgrades to the FKBN-2M system are made.

Incident 872

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
26 Jun 1997: A control rod jams for several days at Doel nuclear power plant in Belgium.

Incident 873

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
1 Jul 1997: A Federal Express cargo van loses a package of radioactive xenon when it falls out the van's unsecured rear door in Sacramento, California.

Incident 874

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
26 Aug 1997: Revelations of 30 years' slow leak from Tokai-Mura radioactive waste storage in Japan.

Incident 875

Source(s): THE DANGERS OF LOST RADIATION SOURCES (below the story on Dounreay)
1997: A driver in Russia dies of leukemia after carrying a cesium-137 source in the door of his truck.

Incident 876

Source(s): Radioactive Source Horror Stories
Oct 1997:

During recent years, many unsecured radioactive sources have been found in the Republic of Georgia. The local authorities first request international assistance in October 1997, when a group of border guards undergoing training at a centre in Lilo, near Tbilisi, become ill and show signs of radiation-induced skin disease. Eleven servicemen are transferred to specialized hospitals in France and Germany. The cause of the exposures is found to be several cesium-137 and cobalt-60 sources of various intensities, abandoned in a military barracks that used to be under the control of the former Soviet Union. In July 1998 three more abandoned sources with intensities of 50 GBq, 3.3 GBq and 0.17 GBq are found in Matkhoji, an agricultural village about 300 km west of Tbilisi. At the same time, another former Soviet military base close to Kuthaisi is found to contain an area contaminated with radium-226. Another military base in the city of Poti, close to the Black Sea, is also found to contain two further radioactive sources buried in a sand floor. In October 1998 two other powerful sources were discovered in Khaishi, western Georgia. The sources are part of eight thermo-electric generators placed in the region. These generators used to hold an activity of anything between 740 and 5550 TBq. Since then, four of the generators have been located and are now in safe storage. One is recovered from the bed of the Inguri river which flows through this region in western Georgia. Two other discoveries: on 21 June 1999, a cobalt-60 source of around 37 GBq is found buried below a road close to the botanical gardens in Tbilisi; on 5 July 1999, two cesium-137 sources are found in the town of Rustavi, close to Tbilisi.

Incident 877

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
1998: Recycler Acérinox in Cádiz, Spain unwittingly melts scrap metal containing radioactive sources. The radioactive cloud drifts all the way to Switzerland before being detected.

Incident 878

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
1998: Unshielded source in Houston, Texas burns individual's hand.

Incident 879

Source(s): Russian & Soviet Peacetime Submarine Losses
26 Jan 1998: During routine tests aboard a moored Russian nuclear-powered submarine, a cooling system pipe breaks, releasing ammonia and nitrogen gas into the compartment. Five crew members are injured; one, a Captain of the Third Rank, succumbs. The vessel is reportedly the Oscar-II class guided missile submarine Tomsk.

Incident 880

Source(s):
Updated 12 Sep 2007
Two US Submarines Collide off Long Island (a collection of newspaper stories about the incident)
USS Kentucky (SSBN 737)
17 Mar 1998: During a classified exercise 125 miles off Long Island, New York, the USS Kentucky (SSBN-737) collides with the fast attack submarine USS San Juan (SSN-751). At the moment of collision the Kentucky is at the surface and the San Juan is running submerged. According to US Navy official data, the submarines suffer minor damage and return to Groton naval base for extensive checks. There are no casualties. Lt. John Wallach, a Navy spokesman, describes the collision as "extremely uncommon".

Incident 881

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
3 Jun 1998: The U.S. Navy reports finding 38 new cooking pots made from steel contaminated with cobalt-60.

Incident 882

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
10 Jun 1998: In Indiana, recliner chair parts are found to have been made from steel contaminated with cobalt-60.

Incident 883

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
22 Jun 1998: The FBI is called in to investigate the circumstances surrounding the discovery of a large stash of radioactive materials in the Bronx, New York. Among the radioisotopes found are cesium-137, strontium-90, carbon-14, and radium.

Incident 884

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
25 Aug 1998: A Troxler Gauge is taken from a locked storage shed at the McMinn's Asphalt Company in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The 70-pound tool is used to measure the density of asphalt and contains an 8-millicurie cesium-137 source. It was the only thing taken from the shed. Neil Sheehan, a spokesman for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, says a health threat would exist if the stainless steel capsule containing the source were broken open.

Incident 885

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
12 Nov 1998: Police charge a Brown University student with trying to poison his former girlfriend and her roommate by placing iodine-125 in their food.

Incident 886

Source(s): Radioactive Source Horror Stories
1999: Old teletherapy sources kept in a firm's warehouse in Ankara, Turkey are put in lead containers for shipment to the supplier. They remain there for about five years because of commercial disputes. In December 1998, the firm ships the containers to another warehouse in Istanbul. But instead of placing the shipment in the deposit yard, workers place it in a facility next door, where it remains for about nine months. When those premises are sold, the new owners sell the unwanted items, including the containers with the sources inside. The buyer takes the containers to an open yard and with another person dismantles them. Ten persons receive radiation doses high enough to cause acute radiation syndrome. One of the sources remains missing.

Incident 887

Source(s): Radioactive Source Horror Stories
Feb 1999: A welder at the construction site of a hydroelectric power station in Yanango, Peru, 300 kilometers east of Lima, inadvertently picks up an iridium industrial source intended for gammagraphy operations but left uncontrolled. He puts it in the back pocket of his trousers. He is initially hospitalized at the Lima Anti-Cancer Centre, suffering from severe radiation burns, and later transferred to the Serious Burns Treatment Centre of the Percy Military Hospital at Clamart (Hauts-de-Seine) in France. Doctors there expect he will benefit from a treatment technique used for serious burns which proved effective on Georgian security guards who were victims of a serious radiation accident in 1997.

Incident 888

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
2 Mar 1999: A gauge containing cesium-137 is found at a shopping mall in Arkansas.

Incident 889

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
17 Apr 1999: A worker at a Burlington, MA high-tech firm mails off a 200-pound package containing enough radioactive iridium to kill anyone who rips it open. The package is supposed to arrive by Federal Express at a Mexican construction firm the next morning. It never gets there. For days, frantic regulators, Federal Express staffers, and executives of AEA Technology QSA, the sender, search the region — including a mile-by-mile surveillance of the route from Burlington to Boston's Logan Airport — for signs of any radiation leakage. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission goes on special alert, just as though there had been an accident at a nuclear power plant. The package is found, intact, in a hangar at a small airport outside London, England. Federal Express says it's just a routine mix-up. Robert Hallisey, director of the radiation control program of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, says that an estimated half-million shipments of radioactive material pass through Logan each year, many of them substances used in nuclear medicine. The NRC says that nationwide, misplacement of nuclear materials similar to the AEA incident this month occurs about once a year. NRC records indicate that a Dupont package of radioactive medicine was temporarily lost in February, and later recovered.

Incident 890

Source(s): Lost and Stolen Nuclear Materials in the United States
2 Jul 1999: A researcher at the University of California (campus unspecified) deliberately places radioactive phosphorus on another researcher's chair to contaminate her. The attack is discovered in time.

Incident 891

Source(s): NationMaster Encyclopedia: Nuclear Accidents
Jul 1999: A technician at Livermore National Laboratory in California fails to fully assess bagged materials to be discarded. Bulk uranium remains in the waste that is placed into a plastic garbage bag. Soon the uranium undergoes spontaneous combustion and ignites other contents of the bag. The fire causes minor contamination of the immediate area.

Incident 892

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
12 Jul 1999: Japan's Tsuruga reactor #2 leaks 51 tonnes of primary coolant water.

Incident 893

Source(s): 40 Years of Nuclear Disaster
15 Jul 1999: President Clinton announces that contract workers at U.S. nuclear weapons facilities, exposed to toxic and radioactive substances during the previous 50 years, can seek federal compensation for related illnesses.

Incident 894

Source(s): Radioactive Ooze Found In Paducah ( Washington Post, 29 August 1999)
U.S. Nuclear Accidents (Allen Lutins)
8 Aug 1999:

The Washington Post reports that thousands of workers were unwittingly exposed to plutonium and other highly radioactive metals over a 23-year period beginning in the mid-1950s at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Kentucky. Reportedly, some workers handling plutonium were told it was uranium, and breathed in fine particles of the more dangerous metal without knowing it.

In addition, a chance discovery of "black ooze" in a field a quarter-mile from the plant led to the finding that the field was contaminated with radioisotopes including uranium and technicium. The level of contamination was nine times higher than that which, inside the plant, would have made the affected area off limits. The finding corroborates charges made in a lawsuit filed in June by workers at the plant that wastes had routinely been dumped illegally outside the premises. Cleanup is expected to be done by the DOE.

Incident 895

Source(s): List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
(Compiled by William Robert Johnston — last updated 8 April 2005)
13 Sep 1999: Six individuals attempt to steal radioactive material from a chemical factory in Grozny, Chechniya, Russia. One reportedly dies in 30 minutes.

Incident 896

Source(s):
Updated 12 Sep 2007
LA-13638: A Review of Criticality Accidents, 2000 Revision (PDF, 3.8 MB)
Toka-imura Criticality Accident (UIC, July 2007)
30 Sep 1999:

Preparing nuclear fuel for a research reactor, three Japanese workers mix uranium oxide and nitric acid in a steel tank instead of the special, favorable-geometry mixing apparatus. This procedural shortcut has been in use for seven or eight years, and is part of an operating manual drafted by the company. The manual has not been approved by Japan's Nuclear Safety Institute. These workers are experienced, but have not been trained in this particular operation. They wear neither dosimeters nor protective gear.

The tank has a 100-liter capacity, and when 40 liters of the 18.8%-enriched uranium compound have been poured into it, the mixture goes critical. (The mixing apparatus will not hold enough solution to permit a fission chain reaction.) The three workers receive extreme doses; two die within months. Another 63 people are also severely exposed as they aid the first victims and seek to shut down the fission reaction. It goes on, intermittently, for 20 hours and finally is stopped when the tank's cooling water jacket is drained; that water was acting as a neutron moderator, facilitating the reaction. Total estimated yield is 2.5x1018 fissions.

The site of Japan's worst nuclear accident to date is the uranium reprocessing facility in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki Prefecture, 100km northeast of Tokyo. Outside the plant, no evacuation takes place for 5 hours. At that time, the mayor of Tokai-mura orders all townspeople living within 350 meters of the plant boundary to move to more remote locations. None of these people receives a dose greater than 25 mSv. There is measurable contamination outside the plant, but the maximum reading is 0.01mSv/hr and it decays quickly to insignificance.

The accident points up serious deficiencies in both the plant's management and Japan's nuclear-industry oversight. Specifically, the JCO Company is totally unprepared for such an accident. It has no equipment to monitor neutron radiation sleeting through the plant and the nearby wooden houses of townspeople. Nor is there any emergency plan for such accidents as this. The gamma-ray alarms are not tied into a plant-wide criticality alarm system, and in fact JCO's license states that a criticality accident is not a credible event. The government revokes this license.

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